76 results in English
A Hydrographical and Chorographical Chart of the Philippine Islands
This magnificent map of the Philippine archipelago, drawn by the Jesuit Father Pedro Murillo Velarde (1696–1753) and published in Manila in 1734, is the first and most important scientific map of the Philippines. The Philippines were at that time a vital part of the Spanish Empire, and the map shows the maritime routes from Manila to Spain and to New Spain (Mexico and other Spanish territory in the New World), with captions. In the upper margin stands a great cartouche with the title of the map, crowned by the ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Anatolia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Anatolia is Number 59 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Anatolia is the peninsula jutting westward from Asia between the Black Sea and the easternmost part of the Mediterranean Sea ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arabia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Arabia is Number 61 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Chapter I discusses physical and political geography. Chapter II covers the political history of the 12 autonomous states, which at ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Armenia and Kurdistan
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Armenia and Kurdistan is Number 62 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Armenia is defined in the study as consisting of six vilayets (provinces) of the Turkish Empire that were ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
France and the Levant
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section with responsibility for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. France and the Levant is Number 66 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book is mainly an historical survey of French military, political, and cultural influence in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Turkey in Asia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Turkey in Asia is Number 58 in the series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book offers a brief survey of the history of the Ottoman Empire from its origins in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Persian Gulf
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Persian Gulf is Number 76 in the series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Chapter I discusses physical and political geography, dividing the littoral of the Gulf (also known as the Arabian Gulf ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mohammedan History
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mohammedan History is Number 57 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published in 1920, after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Part I of the book is an overview of the history of Islam from the time of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mesopotamia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mesopotamia is Number 63 in the series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study describes Mesopotamia as a loosely defined region consisting “of a great depression running south-east from the north-western corner ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Syria and Palestine
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Syria and Palestine is Number 60 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published in 1920, after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. At this time part of the Ottoman Empire, Syria was a vaguely defined entity that included ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Frontier Folk of the Afghan Border—and Beyond
Frontier Folk of the Afghan Border—and Beyond is a book of photographs, with explanatory text, of people from more than 20 tribes and ethnic groups mainly living in the Northwest Frontier region of British India (present-day Pakistan) or across the border in Afghanistan. A few of the pictures show people or scenes from Kashmir, Tibet, and Russian Turkestan. The photographs depict local costumes, festivals and celebrations, and economic life. Most were taken by Captain L.B. Cane of the Royal Army Medical Corps. The text is by Lilian Agnes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Whole World
The first world map published in Japan appeared in 1645. Shown here is a popular version of that first map, published in 1671. It is divided into two parts: the right side contains an oblong egg-shaped world map with the east at the top, while the left side depicts people from 40 countries in national costume. The latter are arrayed in five rows of eight, depicting people both of existing countries, such as Portugal and the Netherlands, and imaginary countries, such as “Dwarf Country” and “Giant Country.” These maps are ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Serbia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Serbia is Number 20 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Serbia was a powerful medieval kingdom conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1459. The Serbs regained their independence in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Greece with the Cyclades and Northern Sporades
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Greece with the Cyclades & Northern Sporades is Number 18 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Turkey in Europe
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Turkey in Europe is Number 16 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. By 1914, when the war began, the Ottoman Empire had lost most of its once-extensive territories in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Holland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Holland is Number 25 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Holland, or the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it was formally known, remained neutral during the war. The book covers ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Spain
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spain is Number 34 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. This relatively brief study covers political history and social and political conditions. It traces the history of Spain from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Albania
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Albania is Number 17 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Albania was conquered by the Ottomans in the middle of the 15th century and did not achieve full independence from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Belgium
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Belgium is Number 26 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. The section on geography ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bulgaria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Bulgaria is Number 22 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Bulgaria was a powerful medieval kingdom that came under the control of the Ottoman Turks in the 14th century. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dahomey
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Dahomey is Number 105 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Dahomey (present-day Benin) was an African kingdom that arose most likely in the second quarter of the 17th century. It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Upper Senegal and Niger
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Upper Senegal and Niger is Number 107 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Upper Senegal and Niger was a French colony, established in 1904 as part of the Government-General of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Macao
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Macao is Number 81 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Macau was at that time a colony of Portugal, leased by China to the Portuguese as a trading port. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Italian Libya
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Libya is Number 127 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It recounts how ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Italian Somaliland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Somaliland is Number 128 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Italian Somaliland (part of the present-day Republic of Somalia) came under Italian control in early 1889, when the sultan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ivory Coast
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Ivory Coast is Number 104 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Ivory Coast (the present day Republic of Côte d’Ivoire) was a French colony, the origins of which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Syrian Voyage in Central and South America
Father Henri Lammens was born into a Catholic family in Ghent, Belgium, in 1862. At the age of 15 he joined the Jesuits and later settled permanently in Lebanon. He mastered Latin and Greek and taught Arabic in Beirut. His first work was an Arabic dictionary, Farā'id al-lugha (The pearls of language), dating from 1889. He also served as editor for the Jesuit newspaper of Beirut, al-Bashīr (The evangelist). He wrote many works, most notably on the history of Arabia in the pre-Islamic era, as well as on ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Ethnic and Language Map of the Near East
This map, produced in 1943 by the Geographic Service of the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office) of Germany, shows the ethnic, linguistic, and religious makeup of the Middle East. Included are the Caucasus and other parts of the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and parts of present-day Pakistan and India. The map and the explanatory text reflect the Nazi-era obsession with race and ethnicity. The long note at the top of the key states that the map "endeavors to show the Lebensraum [living space] of those oriental peoples located in Europe’s area ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Afghanistan
Angus Hamilton was a British journalist who reported for a number of newspapers and journals between 1894 and 1912. Among the events he covered were the Boer War in South Africa, the Boxer uprising in China, and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–5. Like most books of this period, Afghanistan approaches its subject through the prism of the rivalry between Great Britain and Russia for influence in Central Asia, the so-called “Great Game.” The first chapter is devoted to the Orenburg−Tashkent Railway (in present-day Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan) recently ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cabool: A Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in that City, in the Years 1836, 7, and 8
Cabool: A Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in that City, in the Years 1836, 7, and 8 is an account of an 18-month voyage undertaken by Sir Alexander Burnes and three companions by order of the governor-general of India. The purpose of the journey was to survey the Indus River and the territories adjoining it, with the aim of opening up the river to commerce. Following a route that took them up the Indus from its mouth in present-day Pakistan, Burnes and his party visited Shikarpur, Peshawar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
From Tobol'sk to Obdorsk
This album of 32 original watercolors by the Tobol'sk artist M.S. Znamenskii is from the library of Tsar Nicholas II. The album was obtained for him in 1894 for 800 rubles following the death of the artist. Znamenskii painted the watercolors over a number of years and collected them in a birch-bark covered binding under the title "From Tobol'sk to Obdorsk." The subjects include scenes from Tobol'sk, Berezov, Obdorsk (present-day Salekhard), and other localities in Tobol’sk Province; the different ethnic groups living in this region ...
Contributed by Russian State Library
Various Types of Surinamese
This watercolor by Arnold Borret (1848-88) consists of small sketches of different members of society and their various ethnic backgrounds in the Dutch colony of Suriname in the late 1880s. Borret was an accomplished amateur artist who was also a lawyer and a Roman Catholic priest. He studied law at the University of Leiden and practiced in Rotterdam before becoming a clerk, in 1878, to the Supreme Court in Paramaribo. He became a priest in 1883, with the intention of working with lepers in Suriname. He died of typhus in ...
People of Many Nations
During the nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact during the Edo period (1600–1868), the Japanese people still maintained a curiosity about foreign cultures. This map, published in the early 19th century, depicts an enormous archipelago representing Japan at the center of the world. Inset images and descriptions of foreign people, the distance from Japan to their lands, and differences in climate are noted. The locations listed include the “Pygmy country, 14,000 ri” (1 ri = 2.4 miles), “Woman country, 14,000 ri,” and “Black people country, 75 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Typical Inhabitants of the Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) portrays five people of the province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The dress and facial characteristics of the individuals shown are intended to represent the main ethnic and racial groups among the inhabitants of the province, which included people of indigenous, Spanish colonial, mestizo, and Afro-Colombian origin. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of ...
View of a Village on the Banks of the River Meta, Province of Casanare
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) depicts people of different ethnic groups living in an unidentified village in the province of Casanare (present-day Casanare Department), Colombia. Casanare was then a region of  small rural villages and cattle ranches. The caption at the bottom identifies the individuals as zambo (sambo in English; mixed-race Amerindian and African), mestizo (mixed-race Caucasian and Amerindian), and mulato (mixed-race Caucasian and African). The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities ...
White and Mestizo Inhabitants, Tundama Province
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows three individuals representing  different ethnic and racial groups living in Tundama Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. As indicated on the caption, shown are a man of European extraction and two mestizos (people of mixed Indian and European ancestry).  Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in New York when still a youth. He returned home ...
Notable Citizens, Province of Tundama
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows citizens in Tundama Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. The individuals are all well-dressed. The couple in the foreground appears to be of European extraction, while the individual behind the tree may be mestizo. In his paintings, Fernández  often focused on types rather than individuals, as he tried to represent the general traits of people of different ethnic, racial, and social backgrounds. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio ...
White and Mestizo Inhabitants, Tunja Province
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows three inhabitants of Tunja Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. The caption identifies the individuals as white, or of European ancestry, and Indian mestizo, meaning of mixed European and Indian ancestry. The men carry tools and are engaged in some kind of physical labor. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in New York when still ...
Portrait of Three Young Men from Túquerres, Túquerres Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows three young men wearing ruanas (ponchos). Locally made from alpaca, vicuña, or llama wool, these garments are known for their bright colors and their warmth. The scene is set at the edge of the town of Túquerres in Túquerres Province (present-day Nariño Department), in southwestern Colombia. The town is located on a high Andean plateau some 3,000 meters above sea level. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted ...
The Åland Islands
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. The Åland Islands is Number 48 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. These islands are an archipelago of more than 300 habitable islands (out of more than 6,000 rocky ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Alsace-Lorraine
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Alsace-Lorraine is Number 30 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. At the conclusion of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the newly-formed German Empire annexed from France nearly all of Alsace ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Austria, Hungary, Foreign Policy of Austria-Hungary
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Austria, Hungary, Foreign Policy of Austria-Hungary is Number 1 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book is in three parts. The first is an overview of the political history ...
Contributed by Library of Congress