17 results in English
Complutensian Polyglot Bible
The Complutensian Polyglot Bible is the first multilingual printed edition of the entire Bible. The project to produce the Bible was conceived, led, and financed by Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros (circa 1436−1517), who early in the 16th century spearheaded the revitalization of the old University of Alcalá de Henares (founded in 1293) with the establishment of a new university, the Universidad Complutense, in 1508. (Complutense refers to Complutum, the ancient Roman settlement at the site of Alcalá de Henares). With the aid of important figures, such as Antonio ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Etymology
Etymologiae (Etymology) is the best known work by Saint Isidore of Seville (circa 560–636), a scholar and theologian considered the last of the great Latin Church Fathers. It takes its name from a method of teaching that proceeds by explaining the origins and meaning of each word related to a topic. Saint Isidore drew on many different sources in his attempt to summarize all ancient knowledge and save it for posterity. The fame of the work led to it being widely copied and disseminated, and its popularity lasted even ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
The Aeneid
This book is the first printed work of the new Ukrainian literature written in the popular language. It introduced to the world the Ukrainian people with their history, language, traditions, faith, and ethical and aesthetic views, drawing upon materials derived from the social life of Ukraine of the late 18th–early 19th centuries. The work is based on The Aeneid, the epic poem by the Roman poet Virgil (circa 70–19 BC), but the author, Ivan Petrovych Kotlyarevsky, transforms Virgil’s ancient heroes into Ukrainian cossacks. The author used a ...
Explaining and Analyzing Characters, in 15 Juan
Shuo wen jie zi (Explaining and analyzing characters), often abridged as Shuo wen, was compiled by Xu Shen (circa 58−circa 147), a Confucian scholar and linguist of the Eastern Han dynasty. This is the first Chinese dictionary to use the principle of organization by sections with shared components, called bu shou (radicals), and to analyze the form, meaning, and pronunciation of each character, using the liu shu (six categories of Chinese characters) theory, to give the rationale behind them, as well as their interrelation. It is the forerunner of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
"Jottings at the Dream Brook Studio," in the Family Collection of Chen Guyu, in 26 Juan
Mengxi bi tan (Jottings at the Dream Brook Studio) was written in encyclopedic form as a collection of hundreds of articles by Shen Kuo (1031−95), a Song polymath, scientist, statesman, and artist. The work was written at Mengxi (Dream Brook) Garden, his estate in Runzhou (near present-day Zhenjiang, Jiangsu), thus the title. This work’s extraordinarily broad coverage includes astronomy, physics, mathematics, geology, geography, biological medicine, contemporary politics, military affairs, economics, and anecdotes about the arts and literature. It is also a very important document in the history of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Art of the Quechua Language
Arte de la lengva qvichva (The art of the Quechua language) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book is by Diego de Torres Rubio (1547−1638), a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who came to Peru in 1579, where he devoted himself to the study of Indian languages, especially Aymara and Quechua. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Art and Vocabulary in the Common Language of Peru Called Quechua and in the Spanish Language
Arte, y vocabvlario enla lengva general del Perv llamada Quichua, y en la lengua Eʃpañola (Art and vocabulary in the common language of Peru called Quechua and in the Spanish language) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1586. The book is one of the earliest accounts of Quechua, the predominant language spoken by the Inca people of South America. It consists mainly of a glossary of Quechua words and their Spanish equivalents. At the end are notes on the grammar of the Quechua language. The first printing press in South ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Dictionary of the Common Language of Peru Called Quechua, Also in the Spanish Language
Vocabvlario enla Lengva general del Perv llamada Quichua, y enla lengua Eʃpañola (Dictionary of the common language of Peru called Quechua, also in the Spanish language) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1604. The book is a comprehensive dictionary, running to more than 400 pages, of words in Quechua, the predominant language spoken by the Inca people of South America. Words in Quechua, expressed phonetically in the Latin alphabet, are listed in alphabetical order, with their Spanish equivalents. An overview of Quechua grammar appears at the end of the book ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Art and Vocabulary in the Common Language of Peru Called Quechua and in the Spanish Language: The Most Extensive and Elegant as of the Present
Arte, y vocabvlario enla lengva general del Perv llamada Quichua, y en la lengua Eʃpañola. El mas copioso y elegante, que haʃta agora ʃe ha impreʃʃo (Art and vocabulary in the common language of Peru called Quechua and in the Spanish Language: The most extensive and elegant as of the present) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1614. The book provides an extensive overview of Quechua, the predominant language spoken by the Inca people, with an introduction covering pronunciation and grammar, followed by a dictionary of Quechua words with their ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Dictionary of the Common Language of the Incas of Peru Called Quechua Language. Corrected and Improved According to the Standards of the Court of Cuzco
Vocabvlario dela lengva general de todo el Perv llamada lengua Qquichua, o del Inca: corregido y renovado conforme ala propriedad corteʃana del Cuzco (Dictionary of the common language of the Incas of Peru called Quechua Language. Corrected and improved according to the standards of the court of Cuzco) was published in Juli, Peru, in 1608. The book is one of several grammars and dictionaries of the Quechua language published in Peru in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. It has been attributed to Diego González Holguín (1560−circa 1620 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Dictionary of the Aymara Language: First and Second Part
Vocabvlario dela lengva aymara: Primera y segvnda partes (Dictionary of the Aymara language: First and second parts) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. The book is by Ludovico Bertonio (1555−1628), an Italian Jesuit missionary who labored among the Aymara Indians of southern Peru and Bolivia, and who wrote several important works about the Aymara language. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Collection of Words for Everyday Use
The Setsuyōshū (Collection of words for everyday use) is a type of Japanese dictionary from the end of the Muromachi period (late 16th century), collated in iroha (Japanese phonetic alphabet) order and subdivided into semantic categories. This book is one of the first of these dictionaries to have been published. It was created in order to instruct people how to write certain words in kanji (Chinese characters) when writing letters or documents. It contains hardly any examples or explanations. There is no date of publication, but it has long been ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Dawn for the Blind in the Craft of Composition
Ṣubḥ al-aʻshá (Dawn for the blind), as this encyclopedic masterpiece is commonly known, was compiled by medieval Egyptian scholar Ahmad al-Qalqashandi (1355 or 1356−1418) for the secretaries in the chancery of the sultans of Egypt. Scholars have long mined the work for the information it contains on a wide variety of cultural and literary topics, for example the histories of Egypt and Syria, non-Muslim populations in the Muslim world, state formation and administration, calligraphy, libraries, and even codes and cyphers. Scholars have also produced many critical analyses of the ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Trilingual Manuscript Copy of Part Two of Antonio de Nebrija’s “Dictionarium ex Hispaniensi in Latinum Sermonem”
Fray Bernardino de Sahagún was a Franciscan missionary who arrived in Mexico from Spain in 1529 and stayed until his death in 1590. He worked with the indigenous peoples of the area to document their cultures and religions, in large part motivated by the conviction that better understanding of their beliefs and practices would improve the efforts to convert them to Christianity. His methods have led some scholars to consider him the first ethnohistorian, and he is remembered today as much for his ethnographic and linguistic documentation of the Nahua ...
Contributed by The Newberry Library
Manual Vocabulary of the Spanish and Mexican Languages: In Which are Contained the Words, Questions, and Answers Commonly and Usually Found in the Treatment and Communication Between Spaniards and Indians
This work, published in Mexico City in 1611, is the first edition of the most important and most frequently reprinted Spanish work on Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. It contains both a Spanish-Nahuatl (pages 1-100) and a Nahuatl-Spanish (pages 101-160) dictionary, in which the Nahuatl words are spelled out phonetically. Classical Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec Empire, was written with a pictographic script. About 1.5 million people in Mexico still speak dialects of Nahuatl that are descended from the language spoken by the Aztecs.
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
Book of Poetry and Poets
Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Qutaibah (828–85 AD, 213–76) was an Arab literary historian and critic and an Islamic jurist and scholar. He was born in Kufa, in present-day Iraq, and spent much of his life in Baghdad, where he died. His Al-shiir wal shuaraa (Book of poetry and poets) is considered a major classic of Arabic literature and a pioneering work of literary criticism. It is a biographical encyclopedia of more than 200 leading Arab poets, spanning the pre-Islamic period to the early Abbasid era (the sixth century ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Ibn Khallikan’s Biographical Dictionary, Volumes 1 and 2
Abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad Ibn Khallikan (1211–82 AD, 608–81 AH) was a Kurdish Muslim jurist who lived in present-day Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. Wafayat al-a’yan wa-anba abna az-zaman (Obituaries of eminent men and history of the contemporaries), better known as Ibn Khallikan’s biographical dictionary, is the book on which its author’s fame rests. Considered a work of the highest importance for the civil and literary history of the Muslim people, it occupied Ibn Khallikan from 1256 until 1274.  The dictionary is of enormous scope—the English ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina