39 results in English
Mosque in Hami’s Muslim District, Showing the Juxtaposition of Chinese Roof and Islamic Dome. Xinjiang, China, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
General View of the Shah-i Zindah Mosque (Evening Photo). Samarkand
This remarkable view, taken in the light of the setting sun, shows the middle group of mausolea in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis, located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Built on an ancient burial ground, Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. From left to right are seen the Octagonal Mausoleum, the Shirin Bika Aga Mausoleum, the Shadi Mulk Aga Mausoleum, the Emir Zade Mausoleum, and the double domes of the Kazy-Zade Rumi Mausoleum, built in 1437 by Ulugh ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Southern Facade of the Mausoleum
This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Northern Facade of the Mausoleum
This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Northwest Facade of the Mausoleum
This magnificent photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Western Facade of the Mausoleum
This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Saint Sheikh Nuredin Basir Kutbi-Chaardakhum. General View from the South
This photograph of a mausoleum at the Bukhara emir’s palace in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. At the center of this view is a mausoleum dedicated to the spiritual leader Sheikh Nuredin Basir. Although lacking the complexity of 15th-century centralized ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Shrine of Chupan-Ata. General View from the Southwest
This photograph of the Chupan-Ata mausoleum on the outskirts of Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. This view of the mid-15th century Chupan-Ata mausoleum (mazar) reveals severe damage to both the structure and the dome, as well as to the surrounding wall ...
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Perm. Mary Magdalene Church
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the Church of Saint Mary Magdalene in the city of Perm. The church was built in 1889–92 as part of a large orphanage, and the imposing structure was designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance by Aleksandr B. Turchevich-Glumov (1855–1909). Funds for construction came largely from local merchants. In addition to its religious ...
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Perm. Mary Magdalene Church
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the Church of Saint Mary Magdalene in the city of Perm. The view is from the southwest, and clearly shows the imposing bell tower, the upper part of which has not survived. The church was built in 1889–92 as part of a large orphanage, and was designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance by ...
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Ekaterinburg. Entrance into the Tikhvinskii Monastery for Women
Founded in the early 18th century, Ekaterinburg was home to several monastic institutions, including the New Tikhvin Convent, formally established in 1809. By the beginning of the 20th century it was one of the largest convents in Russia, with its capacious Cathedral of Saint Alexander Nevsky (1838-52; not extant). This view shows three churches along the east wall:  the Church of Saint Feodosii (far left); the Church of the Presentation, located over the convent’s east gate; and the Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Joy to ...
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Chapel on Chapan-Ata Mountain, Five Versts from Samarkand
This photograph shows the Chapan-Ata mazar (mausoleum), located several kilometers northeast of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). The mausoleum takes its name from the summit on which it is located (chapan is a local word for shepherd). Its archaic centralized form, resembling similar structures from the 15th century, suffered damage over the centuries. Only a small portion of its original ceramic tile surface is visible, and the structure, built of adobe brick, is braced by several simple buttresses. The high drum supporting the dome has been coated with stucco. The image is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of Mosque at the Top of Chapan-Ata Mountain. Samarkand
The Chapan-Ata mazar  (mausoleum), located several kilometers northeast of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan), takes its name from the summit on which it is located (chapan is a local word for shepherd). Its archaic centralized form, resembling similar structures from the 15th century, suffered damage over the centuries. Only a small portion of its original ceramic tile surface is visible, and the structure, built of adobe brick, is braced by several simple buttresses. The high drum supporting the dome has been coated with stucco. Turbaned figures are visible to the right of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of Chapan-Ata Mountain. Samarkand
This photograph shows the gently rolling landscape leading up to the Chapan-Ata mazar (mausoleum), located several kilometers northeast of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). The mausoleum takes its name from the summit on which it is located (chapan is a local word for shepherd). Its archaic centralized form, resembling similar structures from the 15th century, has suffered damage over the centuries. The structure, built of adobe brick, is braced by several simple buttresses. The high drum supporting the dome has been coated with stucco. A solitary path ascends the steep slopes leading ...
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Right Dome of Shir-Dar Mosque. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second of these, the Shir-Dar Madrasah, was built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. This view from the interior courtyard parapet shows the ribbed dome over an instruction hall at the southwest corner. Despite losses in this active seismic zone, the surface displays lavish ceramic decoration that includes geometric and botanical motifs, as well as a horizontal Perso-Arabic inscription band. Uzbek craftsmen restored the ceramic tiles on the dome during the Soviet ...
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General View of Shah-i Zindah Mosque, from the Northwest. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah Necropolis, located at the outskirts of Samarkand, is built on an ancient burial ground. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. Most of the some two-dozen mausolea and shrines date from the late 14th and 15th centuries. A number were commissioned by Timur (Tamerlane) and by his grandson Ulugh Beg, the astronomer king. Seen here from left to right are the Shadi Mulk Aga and Emir Zade Mausoleums, with ribbed domes; the Shirin Bika Aga ...
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Shah-i Zindah. Dome. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah Necropolis, located at the outskirts of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan), was built on an ancient burial ground. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. Most of the some two-dozen mausolea and shrines date from the late 14th and 15th centuries. This photograph shows a structure with two domes, thought to have been built in 1437 by the astronomer king Ulugh Beg, grandson of Timur (Tamerlane). Identified in some sources as the mausoleums of Timur's benefactress ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rear of Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah Necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). Placed on an ancient burial ground, Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. Shown here is the back facade of the domed Khodzha Akhmad Mausoleum built in the mid 14th century for a local spiritual leader. Located at the end of the necropolis in the northern cluster of shrines, this damaged monument contains bright ceramic work with floral, geometric, and inscriptional patterns. The walls of ...
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Dome of the Gur-Emir Mosque from Eastern Side. Samarkand
Shown here is Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") in Samarkand, the burial place of the great Timur (Tamerlane). Timur began building the shrine in 1403 in memory of his grandson Muhammad Sultan, who had founded a madrasah on this site in the late 14th century. Following Timur's own unexpected death from pneumonia in 1405, his body was also placed in the structure, which became the mausoleum of the Timurids. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. This view from the east side shows ...
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Gateway into Nil's Hermitage. Saint Nil Stolbenskii Monastery, Lake Seliger
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
City of Rzhev. Nativity of Christ Cathedral
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral of the Transfigured Saviour and the Church of the Entry into Jerusalem in Torzhok
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dome of the Gur-Emir Mosque from West (Cracked). Samarkand
Shown here is Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") in Samarkand, the burial place of the great Timur (Tamerlane). Timur began the shrine in 1403 in memory of his grandson Muhammad Sultan, who had founded a madrasah on this site in the late 14th century. Following Timur's own unexpected death from pneumonia in 1405, his body was also placed in the structure, which became the mausoleum of the Timurids. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. This view from the west side shows severe ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dome of the Namazga Mosque. Samarkand
Shown here is the Namazga Mosque, located on the southern outskirts of Samarkand. Built as early as the 11th century in another location, the mosque was rebuilt in the 1630s by Nadir Divan-Begi. Its name refers to a form of ritual worship in Islam—Namaz (in Persian), or Salah (in Arabic). The mosque was dedicated to the Eid al-Fitr holiday, observed at the end of the Ramadan fast. The main facade consists of an arcade centered on a large iwan (entrance arch) leading to the main structure. The mosque culminates ...
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Dome of the Gur-Emir Mosque. Samarkand
Shown here is Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") in Samarkand, the burial place of the great Timur (Tamerlane). Timur began the shrine in 1403 in memory of his beloved grandson Muhammad Sultan. Following Timur's own death from pneumonia in 1405, his body was also placed in the structure, which became the mausoleum of the Timurids. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. This overcast view from the east side shows severe damage to the ceramic ornamentation of the ribbed dome. The cylinder beneath ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assumption Cathedral from the Eastern Side. Vladimir
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of a Courtyard, Adobe Buildings, and a Bird's Nest Atop a Dome
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find sufficiently warm areas in the empire for the cultivation of this crop. This photograph shows machines and vats for the production of cottonseed oil at the estate of Murgab near Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were incorporated into the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. The oasis takes its name ...
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Church Nestled between Mountains, Possibly Caucasus
This photograph of the Church of Saints Peter and Paul, attached to the local Russian army garrison battalion, was taken in the mountain town of Artvin (at that time in Batumi Province) in the Caucasus. Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the Artvin territory was transferred from the Ottoman to the Russian Empire. In 1921 the territory was returned to Turkey under the terms of the Treaty of Kars. The Church of Saints Peter and Paul was established in 1875 for the Kuban Battalion, but it occupied temporary quarters ...
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Trinity Cathedral of the Holy Trinity Monastery, Belgorod
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Domed Adobe Structures Surrounded by an Adobe Wall
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Walled Adobe Structure with Domes and Arches in Desert Area, with Man Posed in Front
Shown here is a memorial shrine dedicated to the burial place of two brothers, Gifarya and Bureyda, who bore the title askhab (close associates of the Prophet Muhammed) in the 7th century. It is located near the ancient city of Merv, now Mary, on the Murghab River (present-day Turkmenistan). The core of the shrine was built in the 15th century and consists of two structures, each of which has a main facade with a peshtak (large pointed arch). The facades were richly decorated with ceramic tiles in geometric and inscriptional ...
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Front View of a Crumbling Mosque, with a Man Standing beside It
Shown here are ruins of the mausoleum of Sultan Sandjara, built in 1140 by a renowned Seljuk leader. Situated in the center of the Sultan Kala section of the ancient city of Merv (on the Murghab River in the Mary region of present-day Turkmenistan), the mausoleum was ransacked when the Mongols destroyed Merv in 1221. The remains of Sultan Sandjara (1085?–1157) were taken to an unknown location. Thirty-eight meters in height, the mausoleum culminated in a dome (partially restored in 1911) that was originally covered in azure tiles. The ...
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Side View of a Crumbling Mosque
Shown here are ruins of the mausoleum of Sultan Sandjara, built in 1140 by a renowned Seljuk leader. Situated in the center of the Sultan Kala section of the ancient city of Merv (on the Murghab River in the Mary region of present-day Turkmenistan), the mausoleum was ransacked when the Mongols destroyed Merv in 1221. Thirty-eight meters in height, the mausoleum culminated in a dome that was originally covered in azure tiles. The dome rests on a complex arcade system of pointed arches. Also visible are traces of ceramic decoration ...
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Domed Adobe Buildings with Several People Standing Nearby, Part of Crumbling Mosque Visible in Background, on Right
Shown here is a group of small adobe shrines at the mazar (mausoleum) of Ahmed Zamcha, located among the ruins of the fabled city of Merv (on the Murghab River in the Mary region of Turkmenistan). Settled in the third millennium BC, Merv reached its zenith under the Seljuks in the late 11th and 12th centuries, when it was one of the world’s largest cities and a major point on the Silk Road. Destroyed by the Mongols in 1221, Merv never regained its former importance. The figure at left ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Domed Adobe Buildings with Crumbling Mosque in Background
Shown here is a group of small adobe shrines at the mazar (mausoleum) of Ahmed Zamcha, located among the ruins of the fabled city of Merv (on the Murghab River in the Mary region of Turkmenistan). Settled in the third millennium BC, Merv was taken by the Arabs in 651 and became a staging point for Arab conquests in Central Asia. Merv reached its zenith under the Seljuks in the late 1lth and 12th centuries, when it was one of the world’s largest cities and a major point on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Adobe Buildings, One with Dome
Shown here is the mazar (mausoleum) of Akhmed Zamcha, located among the ruins of the fabled city of Merv on the Murghab River in the Mary region of present-day Turkmenistan. Settled in the third millennium BC, Merv was taken by the Arabs in 651 and became a staging point for Arab conquests in Central Asia. Merv reached its zenith under the Seljuks in the late 11th and 12th centuries, when it was one of the world’s largest cities and a major stop along the Silk Road. Destroyed by the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Monastery from Svetlitsa Island, Saint Nil Stolbenskii Monastery, Lake Seliger
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chapel on Chapan-Ata Mountain, Five Versts from Samarkand
This photograph shows the Chapan-Ata mazar (mausoleum), located several kilometers northeast of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). The mausoleum takes its name from the summit on which it is located (chapan is a local word for shepherd). Its archaic centralized form, resembling similar structures from the 15th century, suffered damage over the centuries. Only a small portion of its original ceramic tile surface is visible, and the structure, built of adobe brick, is braced by several simple buttresses. The high drum supporting the dome has been coated with stucco. The image is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Monastery from Svetlitsa Island, Saint Nil Stolbenskii Monastery, Lake Seliger
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress