51 results in English
The Islands and Mainland of the West Indies
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Santiago Bay
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Atlantic Coast of North America from the Chesapeake Bay to Florida
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Peninsula of Florida
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This circa 1639 map of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Java and Australia
This manuscript map of Java and the tip of northern Australia is a copy of an earlier work by the Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). In the 16th century, Portugal sent several expeditions to explore the islands south of Malaysia; it is possible that they gained some knowledge about the geography of Australia from these missions. Some scholars have speculated that the Malays had a knowledge of Australia, which Eredia somehow absorbed. The first documented European sighting of Australia was by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, in 1606.
Map of Greenland
This map of Greenland is by Hans Poulsen Egede (1686–1758), the Norwegian-born Lutheran clergyman and missionary known as the “Apostle of Greenland.” Egede made two journeys, in 1723 and in 1724, to explore the west coast of Greenland with the goals of mapping the coastline and obtaining information about the ancient Norse settlements on the island. Egede lived and worked in Greenland from 1721 to 1736. Upon his return to Denmark, he had this map made and published a book, Omstændelig og udførlig relation, angaaende den grønlandske missions begyndelse ...
Travels in Arabia
Travels in Arabia provides an overview, intended for a general audience, of the most important European travelers to Arabia in the 18th and 19th centuries. The book was compiled and written by Bayard Taylor (1825–78), an American poet, translator, and travel writer, and first published in 1872. Shown here is a slightly revised and updated edition, published in 1892. Following brief introductory chapters about the geography of Arabia and ancient travelers to Arabia, the book devotes one or more chapters to the following explorers: Carsten Niebuhr (1733–1815), a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Penetration of Arabia: A Record of the Development of Western Knowledge Concerning the Arabian Peninsula
David George Hogarth (1862–1927) was a British archaeologist and scholar who between 1887 and 1907 worked on excavations in Cyprus, Greece, and several countries of the Middle East. In 1904 he published The Penetration of Arabia, a work which, as the subtitle indicates, was an attempt to chronicle the growth of Western knowledge about the Arabian Peninsula, rather than a first-hand account based on travel to the region.  The book has two sections. “The Pioneers” analyzes the historical geography of the region from the time of Claudius Ptolemy (second ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the New Discoveries in the Eastern Ocean
This Russian map of 1781 depicts parts of eastern Siberia and the northwestern part of the North American continent, including places reached by the Russians Mikhail Gvozdev and Ivan Sind, the English explorer Captain James Cook, and others. In 1732, the expedition led by Gvozdev and the navigator Ivan Fedorov crossed the Bering Strait between Asia and America, discovered the Diomede Islands, and approached Alaska in the vicinity of Cape Prince of Wales. The expedition landed on the shore of the North American mainland, marked on the map as the ...
Map Presenting the Discoveries of Russian Navigators in the Pacific Ocean, as Well as Those of Captain Cook
This 1787 map shows the voyages of the leading Russian explorers of the North Pacific: Bering, Chirikov, Krenitsyn, Shpanberg, Walton, Shel'ting, and Petushkov. It also shows the 1778-79 voyage of British Captain James Cook. The route of each voyage is depicted in great detail, with ship locations plotted by the day. Other details on the map include administrative borders, population centers, Chukchi dwellings, and impassable ice. The inset map is of Kodiak Island, Alaska, denoted here by its Russian name of Kykhtak.
“Shipwrecked” by Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, and the Description of the Journey Which he Made Through Florida with Panfilo de Narvaez
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (1490-1560) was second in command of an expedition led by Pánfilo de Narváez (1478-1528) that left Spain in June 1527 with five ships and 600 men with the mission of establishing a colony in “Florida.” The expedition suffered storms, desertions, disease, and other difficulties in the Caribbean. On November 5 and 6, 1528, 80 surviving members of the expedition were shipwrecked on or near Galveston Island, Texas. After living among the local Native Americans for six years, Cabeza de Vaca and three other survivors headed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Augustine: Part (Below Thirty Degrees Latitude) is on the Mainland of Florida, but the Sea Coast is More Low-Lying and thus Torn Away and Rendered Island-Like
This map is the earliest engraving of any city or territory now part of the United States. It also includes the dorado fish, one of the natural history subjects drawn by John White, governor of the first Anglo-American settlement in America, in the Hatteras region, then part of Virginia (now North Carolina). Sir Francis Drake’s 1585-86 raid on the West Indies picked up the Virginia settlers and returned them to Europe. In the course of the return voyage, the author of this view-plan was able to copy the figure ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and in Quest of a North-West Passage Between Asia & America, Performed in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, and 1779
The American explorer and adventurer John Ledyard was born in Groton, Connecticut, in 1751. After studying briefly at Dartmouth College, he went to sea as a common sailor. He was forced to join the British Navy, and from June 1776 to October 1780 was a marine on Captain James Cook’s third voyage to the Pacific. This book recounts his observations of Alaska, Kamchatka, southern China, and the islands of the South Pacific. Ledyard later conceived of a plan to cross Russia, continue across the Bering Strait to Alaska, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Explorations in Africa, By Dr. David Livingstone, and Others, Giving a Full Account of the Stanley-Livingstone Expedition of Search, under the Patronage of the New York Herald, as Furnished by Dr. Livingstone and Mr. Stanley
David Livingstone (1813-73) was a Scottish missionary and medical doctor who explored much of the interior of Africa. In a remarkable journey in 1853-56, he became the first European to cross the African continent. Starting on the Zambezi River, he traveled north and west across Angola to reach the Atlantic at Luanda. On his return journey he followed the Zambezi to its mouth on the Indian Ocean in present-day Mozambique. Livingstone’s most famous expedition was in 1866-73, when he explored central Africa in an attempt to find the source ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa. From Eighteen Hundred and Sixty-five to his Death. Continued by a Narrative of his Last Moments and Sufferings, Obtained from his Faithful Servants, Chuma and Susi, by Horace Waller, F.R.G.S., Rector of Twywell, Northhampton
David Livingstone (1813–73) was a Scottish missionary and medical doctor who explored much of the interior of Africa. Livingstone’s most famous expedition was in 1866–73, when he traversed much of central Africa in an attempt to find the source of the Nile. This book contains the daily journals that Livingstone kept on this expedition, from his first entry on January 28, 1866, when he arrived at Zanzibar (in present-day Tanzania), to his last on April 27, 1873, four days before he died from malaria and dysentery in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
This Chart was Compiled on the Siberian Expedition under the Command of Navy Captain Bering from Tobolsk to the Chukotkan Corner
Vitus Jonassen Bering (1681–1741) was born in Denmark but spent most of his adult life in the Russian navy. In 1725, Tsar Peter I (Peter the Great) instructed Bering to undertake an expedition to find the point at which Siberia connected to America. In what became known as the First Kamchatka Expedition (1725–30), Bering traveled overland from St. Petersburg via Tobolsk to the Kamchatka Peninsula, where he had a ship, the Saint Gabriel, constructed. In 1728 he sailed north along the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In August ...
The Special Features of French Antarctica, Otherwise Called America, and of Several Lands and Islands Discovered in Our Time
André Thevet (1516/17-92) was a Franciscan friar who traveled widely and, through his writings, helped to establish cosmographie--as geography was called at the time--as a science in 16th-century France. After making trips to Africa and the Middle East in the 1540s, he was appointed chaplain to the expedition of Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, which set out from Le Havre in May 1555 to establish a colony in Brazil. The expedition landed near present-day Rio de Janeiro in November of the same year. In January 1556, Thevet fell ill ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Concerning Discovered Islands: Letter of Christopher Columbus, to Whom Our Age is Greatly Indebted, Concerning Islands Recently Discovered in the Indian Ocean
This small work, published in 1493, is a Latin edition of a letter by Christopher Columbus announcing his discoveries of the previous year. It most likely was produced in Basel, Switzerland, by Jakob Wolff, a well-known printer who was active in Basel from 1488 to 1518. The work contains some of the first published images purporting to show the New World, including one depicting Columbus landing on a shore and making contact with indigenous people, and one showing the building of a town. At the top of both illustrations are ...
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
On the New World or Landscape Recently Discovered by the Illustrious King of Portugal Through the Very Best Pilots and Sea Experts of the World
This work is the only known copy of a Dutch translation of a letter from Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) to Lorenzo de Medici (1463-1503), describing Vespucci's third voyage to America, undertaken in 1501-02 in the service of the king of Portugal. The work was published in Antwerp circa 1507 by the famous Flemish printer Joes van Doesborgh. The book is a translation of a Latin text, published in Paris in 1503, under the title Mundus novus (New world), which was itself a translation from Vespucci’s original Italian. In the ...
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
Concerning the Savages, or, the Voyage of Samuel Champlain, from Brouage, Made in New France in 1603...
This book is an account of Champlain’s first voyage to New France, or Canada, in 1603. Amyar de Chastes, the governor of Dieppe, received from King Henry IV of France a grant of land in Canada, and asked Champlain to accompany him on a voyage to explore the territory. The expedition left Honfleur on March 15, 1603, and reached Tadoussac after a 40-day Atlantic crossing. Champlain first explored some 50-60 kilometers up the Saguenay River. He then proceeded up the Saint Lawrence River to near present-day Montreal. He returned ...
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
The Splendid Narrative of Ferdinand Cortes About the New Spain of the Sea and Ocean Transmitted to the Most Sacred and Invincible, Always August Charles Emperor of the Romans, King of the Spaniards in the Year of the Lord 1520: In Which is Contained Many Things Worthy of Knowledge and Admiration About the Excellent Cities of Their Provinces…Above All About the Famous City Temixtitan and Its Diverse Wonders, Which Will Wondrously Please the Reader
Between July 1519 and September 1526, Hernando Cortés (1485-1547), the soldier and adventurer who in 1519-21 conquered for Spain what is now central and southern Mexico, sent five extended letters to Emperor Charles V in which he described his exploits and placed himself and his actions in a favorable light. This book contains the first Latin edition of Cortes’s second letter. In it, Cortés gives an account of his first meeting with the Aztec emperor, Montezuma II. Dated October 30, 1520, the letter was translated from Spanish into Latin ...
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
Columbus Manuscript
In this manuscript, enscribed Cadiz, Spain, November 20, 1493, Christopher Columbus describes the new lands he has discovered, which he calls the East Indies. The manuscript is written on linen paper and bears a watermark. In 1978, the eminent historian Edmundo O’Gorman authenticated the document and backed its acquisition by CONDUMEX.
Clark's Map of 1810
When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in April 1803, the extent and character of the land was uncharted. On May 14, 1804, Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set out on an expedition to explore the new territory that would fundamentally change Americans’ conceptions of their country. Clark served as the expedition’s principal cartographer. After completing the three-year journey from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean and back, Clark worked at compiling a comprehensive map of the American West, using his personal knowledge and information gleaned from ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Kusae, on the Basis of British and German Nautical Charts / by E. Sarfert
This map of the volcanic island of Kosrae in the western Pacific is by Ernst Gotthilf Sarfert, a German ethnographer who participated in the German South Sea Expedition of 1908–10 and spent four months on Kosrae in 1909, studying the island and its people. Kosrae comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia, the others being Pohnpei, also a single volcanic island; Truk, a group of 14 volcanic islands; and Yap, a group of four islands and 13 coral atolls. These islands are all part ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Saint Augustine Map, 1589
This engraved hand-colored map or view-plan by Baptista Boazio depicts Sir Francis Drake's attack on Saint Augustine on May 28-29, 1586. Boazio, an Italian who worked in London from about 1585 to 1603, made maps to illustrate accounts of English expeditions and campaigns. He prepared a series of maps marking Drake's route for Walter Bigges' work on Drake's expedition to the West Indies, first published in 1588 and followed by later editions. This map highlights an episode from Drake's Caribbean expedition, pictorially portraying how the English ...
Geographic Chart of the Kingdom of Chile
This map by the Chilean Jesuit priest Alonso de Ovalle (1601–51) appears in his book Histórica Relación del Reyno de Chile (Historical narration about the kingdom of Chile), considered the first history of the country. The map is the result of a major descriptive effort begun during Ovalle’s first trip to Europe, as “Procurator” of Chile, in 1641. At the time, the Jesuits needed support for their missionary work in the south of Chile, and Ovalle was commissioned to recruit help and raise money. Answering the need for ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
Description of the New Route to the South of the Strait of Magellan Discovered and Set in the Year 1616 by Dutchman Willem Schouten de Hoorn
In June 1615, Dutch navigators Jacob Le Maire (circa 1585–1616) and Willem Corneliszoon Schouten (circa 1567–1625) set out in two ships, the Eendracht and the Hoorn, from the Dutch port of Texel. Their goal was to find a new route to the Moluccas Islands, Europe’s main source of pepper in the lucrative spice trade with the East Indies, and in so doing avoid the trade monopoly of the Dutch East Indies Company. They sailed south of the Strait of Magellan and on January 24, 1616, discovered a ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
Map of the Strait of Magellan Developed by the Schouten and Le Maire Expedition, 1616
In June 1615, Dutch navigators Jacob Le Maire (circa 1585–1616) and Willem Corneliszoon Schouten (circa 1567–1625) set out in two ships, the Eendracht and the Hoorn, from the Dutch port of Texel, seeking to find a new route to the East Indies. They made landfall on the coast of South America in early December, at Port Desire (present-day Puerto Deseado, Argentina). This near-contemporary print shows the sailors from the Hoorn and the Eendracht at work on shore. Seeking to replenish their supplies after nearly six months at sea ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
The First Map of the Strait of Magellan, 1520
The first circumnavigation of the globe was the voyage of 1519–22 by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan (1480–1521), undertaken in the service of Spain. The only known first-hand account of the voyage is the journal by Venetian nobleman and scholar Antonio Pigafetta (circa 1480–1534). Four manuscript versions of Pigafetta’s journal survive, three in French and one in Italian. Pigafetta also made 23 beautiful, hand-drawn color maps, a complete set of which accompanies each of the manuscripts. Shown here is Pigafetta’s map of the Strait of ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
A Chart of Magellan by the Route of Tierra del Fuego
This map of “Magellanica,” the land south of the Strait of Magellan, is by Willem Janszoon Blaeu, a leading Dutch cartographer and map publisher and the founder of a family of distinguished mapmakers that included his sons Joan and Cornelis. Born in the Netherlands in 1571, between 1594 and 1596 Blaeu studied in Denmark under the astronomer Tycho Brahe, where he developed skills as an instrument and globe maker. Returning to Amsterdam, he founded the family map company. In 1608 he was appointed chief hydrographer of the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
Map of the Complete Island of Cuba
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was in the employ of the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Major. This circa 1639 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was in the employ of the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Major. This circa 1639 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of a Journey to Musardu, the Capital of the Western Mandingoes
In 1868, President Daniel Bashiel Warner of the Republic of Liberia sent Benjamin J.K. Anderson, a Liberian government official, into the interior of the country to negotiate a treaty with the King of Musardo. Warner’s objective was to improve ties with the peoples of the interior and to try to associate them, economically and culturally, with the coastal colonies established by immigrants from the United States. Traveling through dense forest, Anderson made careful notes about the people, customs, and natural resources of the areas through which he passed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Along the Russian Arctic Regions: Adolf Nordenskiöld's Voyage around Europe and Asia in 1878–80
This illustrated book by Eduard Andreevich Granstrem (1843–1918), a Russian writer of popular histories for young people, recounts the first successful navigation of the Northeast Passage, accomplished by the Finnish-born geographer and Arctic explorer Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1832–1901) on the steamship Vega in 1878–79. A possible northern passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans had been discussed since the early 16th century, but Nordenskiöld was the first navigator to travel the entire water route along the northern coast of Europe and Asia. Accompanied by three other ...
The New and Unknown World: or Description of America and the Southland
This monumental work by the Dutch writer Arnoldus Montanus (1625?-83) reflects the fascination of 17-th century Europe with the New World. Montanus was a Protestant minister and headmaster of the Latin School in the town of Schoonhoven. He wrote books on church history, theology, the history of the Low Countries, and the peoples and cultures of the Americas and Australia. (The “Southland” in the title of his book refers to the recently-discovered Australia.) Montanus never visited the New World and his work contains numerous errors and fantastic conceptions about ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
In Praise of the Most Serene Ferdinand, King of Spain, 'Baetic' and Ruler of Granada, Besieger, Victor, Triumphant: And On the Recently Discovered Islands in the Indian Sea
This book is a compilation of two texts, both relating to events in the momentous year of 1492. The first is a drama in Latin by an Italian author, Carlo Verardi (Carolus Verardus), written in a combination of verse and prose, which recounts the military campaign during the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to capture Granada, the last Moorish territory on the Iberian Peninsula. The annexation of Granada marked the end of eight centuries of Muslim rule in Spain and Portugal and concluded the long struggle known in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
United States of North America: Perry Arrives in Uraga, Soshu Province
Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858) of the United States Navy entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to force Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The “black ships” that he came with became a common subject for popular prints. The Japanese people were increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction, and a mixture of curiosity, awe, and anxiety at the influx of unfamiliar technology and customs can be seen ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of an Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842, Oregon and North California in the Years 1843-44
The geographical knowledge of the mountain man Jedediah Smith (1799–1831) is recorded by George Gibbs on this map. Smith’s explorations played a significant role in the settlement of the American West. Smith was the first white man to cross the future states of Nevada and Utah, the first American to enter California by the overland route, and the first American to explore the Pacific coast from California to the banks of the Columbia River. Gibbs’s annotations, based on a manuscript map by Smith, detail such matters as ...
Chart of the NW Coast of America and Part of the NE of Asia with the Track of his Majesty's Sloops 'Resolution' and 'Discovery' from May to October 1778
George Vancouver (1757–98), who became a noted explorer and surveyor of the Pacific Northwest, joined the Royal Navy at the age of 13 and was a midshipman on H.M.S. Discovery during Captain James Cook’s ill-fated third voyage of 1778–80. This may be one of Vancouver’s first charts. The purpose for which the chart was made is not known. Such charts may have been drafted by the midshipmen as an exercise, part of a running survey conducted under the guidance of ships’ masters and captains ...
A Chart of Part of the Sea Coast of New South Wales on the East Coast of New Holland from Point Hicks to Black Head
This map is one of four manuscript charts from the first great voyage of exploration by Captain James Cook, which in April 1770 made the first clear delineation of the east coast of Australia. Sponsored by the Royal Society and the Royal Navy, the expedition had several objectives. Cook was to observe and describe the transit of Venus, chart the coastlines of places he visited in the South Pacific, and record details of the peoples, flora, and fauna he saw. The expedition sponsors also hoped Cook would find and claim ...
A Chart of Part of the Sea Coast of New South Wales on the East Coast of New Holland from Black Head to Cape Morton
This map is one of four manuscript charts from the first great voyage of exploration by Captain James Cook, which in April 1770 made the first clear delineation of the east coast of Australia. Sponsored by the Royal Society and the Royal Navy, the expedition had several objectives. Cook was to observe and describe the transit of Venus, chart the coastlines of places he visited in the South Pacific, and record details of the peoples, flora, and fauna he saw. The expedition sponsors also hoped Cook would find and claim ...
A Chart of Part of the Sea Coast of New South Wales on the East Coast of New Holland from Cape Morton to Cape Palmerston
This map is one of four manuscript charts from the first great voyage of exploration by Captain James Cook, which in April 1770 made the first clear delineation of the east coast of Australia. Sponsored by the Royal Society and the Royal Navy, the expedition had several objectives. Cook was to observe and describe the transit of Venus, chart the coastlines of places he visited in the South Pacific, and record details of the peoples, flora, and fauna he saw. The expedition sponsors also hoped Cook would find and claim ...