31 results in English
The Seven Things to Overcome (Incomplete)
This work was included in Tian xue chu han (First collection of heavenly studies) printed in 1629. The author was Pang Diwo (the Chinese name of Diego de Pantoja, 1571–1618), one of the closest collaborators of the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci. After Ricci’s death in 1610, three Jesuit missionaries remained in China, Nicolò Longobardi (1566–1654 or 1655), Sabatino de Ursis (1575–1620), and Pantoja. Pantoja had come to Beijing with Ricci in 1601 to serve as his assistant. In his missionary activities, Pantoja followed Ricci’s style ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Spain
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spain is Number 34 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. This relatively brief study covers political history and social and political conditions. It traces the history of Spain from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Synodical Constitutions of the Archdiocese of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru
Constitvciones sinodales del Arçobispado de los Reyes en el Pirv (Synodical constitutions of the archdiocese of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1614. Lima was founded in 1535 by the Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro, and was originally called Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Legal Allegation and Decision to Examine and Approve the Miracles on Record of the Very Pious Man Father Francis Solano, Member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order
Allegatio ivris, et consilium pro examinandis et approbandis miraculis religio fissimi viri Francisci Solano Seraphici Franciscani ordinis alumni (Legal allegation and decision to examine and approve the miracles on record of the very pious man Father Francis Solano, member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. Saint Francis Solano (1549−1610) was a Spanish-born Franciscan friar who came to South America in 1589, where he worked for 20 years as a missionary among the Indians of northwestern Argentina and Paraguay. He was canonized in 1726 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Sermon by the Reverend Father Diego de Castro on the Death of Father Luis Lopez, Bishop of Quito and Elected Bishop of Charcas, of the Order of Saint Augustine
Sermon en la mverte del maestro Don Fray Lvys Lopez de la Orden de sant Augustin Obispo de Quito se publicó (Sermon by the Reverend Father Diego de Castro on the death of Father Luis Lopez, Bishop of Quito and elected Bishop of Charcas, of the Order of Saint Augustine) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1606. Luis López de Solís was appointed bishop of Quito, Ecuador, in September 1592. He was appointed archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (present-day Bolivia) in July 1605, and he died on July 5 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile
Sermon que el mvy reverendo padre fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez calificador del Sancto Officio, Miniʃtro Prouincial delos frayles Menores, dela prouincia del Piru y Reyno de Chile (Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of the Feasts Held in the City of Lima for the Beatification of the Blessed Father Ignatius of Loyola, Founder of the Society of Jesus
Relacion delas fiestas qve enla civdad de Lima se hizieron por la beatificacion del bienaventvrado Padre Ignacio de Loyola, fundador dela Religion dela Compañia de Ieʃus (Report of the feasts held in the city of Lima for the beatification of the blessed Father Ignatius of Loyola) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1610. Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556), the Spanish nobleman who founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) in 1540, was beatified by Pope Paul V on July 27, 1609. This publication documents the celebrations that took place ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Decree of Our Most Holy Father Pope Paul V in Favor of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God
Decreto de Nvestro Sanctissimo Padre el Papa Pavlo V. en favor dela Immacvlada Concepción dela Sanctiʃsima Virgen Madre de Dios y Señora Nueʃtra (Decree of our most holy father Pope Paul V in favor of the Immaculate Conception of the blessed Virgin Mary, mother of God) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1618. This one-page decree concerns the Immaculate Conception, the doctrine promulgated by the Roman Catholic Church, which holds that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was born without sin. The first printing press in South America was established in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Faithful and True Translation of a Brief Memoir of the Life and Miracles of the Saintly Brother Julian of Alcala
Fiel y Verdadero treslado de vn breve memorial de la vida y milagros del ʃancto Padre Fray Iulian de Alcala (Faithful and true translation of a brief memoir of the life and miracles of the saintly Brother Julian of Alcala) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1610. It is a short pamphlet, in Spanish, about the life of Brother Julian, who was born circa 1550 in Medinaceli and died in 1606 in Alcalá de Henares. He was beatified in 1825 as the Blessed Julian of Saint Augustine. The first printing ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of the Feasts Held in the City of Cuzco for the Beatification of the Blessed Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Founder of the Society of Jesus
Relacion delas fiestas qve enla civdad del Cvzco se hizieron por la beatificacion del bienaventvrado Padre Ignacio de Loyola, fundador de la Compañia de Ieʃus (Report of the feasts held in the city of Cuzco for the beatification of the blessed Saint Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1610. Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556), the Spanish nobleman who founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) in 1540, was beatified by Pope Paul V on July 27, 1609. This publication documents ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
On Time; On Divine Ideas; On Matter and Form; Reply on the Universals; On Universals
This codex contains four philosophical treatises by the English theologian and reformer John Wycliffe (also seen as John Wyclif,) (circa 1330−84). The works are The works are De tempore (also called De individuatio temporis) (On time); De ydeis [De ideis] (On divine ideas); De materia et forma (On matter and form); and De universalibus (On universals); as well as a work by an unidentified author entitled Replicacio de universalibus (Reply on the universals). According to the colophon, the manuscript was written by Jan Hus, an early proponent of ecclesiastical ...
Crown of Roses, Issue 1, August 1904
Klílā d-warde (Crown of roses) was a magazine issued in Mosul (present-day Iraq) between August 1904 and July 1908. It was published by the Dominican Fathers, in the neo-Aramaic language using an East Syriac script, which was common to the Chaldean Catholics of the region. It contained devotional articles, with occasional coverage of cultural topics. The magazine was produced by a small staff of clergy based in Mosul. The Dominican presence in the city goes back to 1750, when Pope Benedict XIV sent a group of Italian friars to establish ...
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The Overseas Expeditions by the French Against the Turks and Other Saracens and Moors Overseas
Les Passages faiz oultre mer par les François contre les Turcqs et autres Sarrazins et Mores oultre marins (The overseas expeditions by the French against the Turks and other Saracens and Moors overseas), commonly known as Passages d'outremer (The expeditions to outremer), is an illuminated manuscript made in France around 1472−75. It includes 66 miniatures, most likely painted by Jean Colombe (active 1463−98), an illuminator from Bourges. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Pope Pius II pleaded for the liberation of the Christian holy places in ...
Saint Jerome’s "Against Jovinianus" and "Apologetical Work to Pammachius"
This codex contains two works by Saint Jerome, Adversus Jovinianus (Against Jovinianus) and Apologeticum ad Pammachium (Apologetical work for Pammachius). The latter consists of two letters that refer to Adversus Jovinianus. Written in 393, the main work is a polemical diatribe against the monk Jovinianus, who had asserted the equality of virginity and marriage. Following a treatise on marriage by the Roman author Seneca that is now lost, Jerome defends the Christian ideal of virginity while at the same time excoriating earlier pagan morals and ideas. Pammachius was a Roman ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Gratian's Decree
The Decretum Gratiani, also known as the Concordantia Discordantium Canonum, is a collection of canon law completed around 1140 by Gratian, a Benedictine monk from Italy who taught at the Monastery of Saints Felix and Nabor in Bologna, and who is known as the father of the study of canon law. The work was used in the School of Law at the University of Bologna and later in other European universities. Gratian drew upon existing conciliar canons up to and including the Second Lateran Council in 1139. Different law cases ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Lectionary in Nahuatl with Latin Headings
Fray Bernardino de Sahagún was a Franciscan missionary who arrived in Mexico from Spain in 1529 and stayed until his death in 1590. He worked with the indigenous peoples of the area to document their cultures and religions, in large part motivated by the conviction that better understanding of their beliefs and practices would improve the efforts to convert them to Christianity. His methods have led some scholars to consider him the first ethnohistorian, and he is remembered today as much for his ethnographic and linguistic documentation of the Nahua ...
Contributed by The Newberry Library
Exercises in Nahuatl Taken from the Holy Gospel
Fray Bernardino de Sahagún was a Franciscan missionary who arrived in Mexico from Spain in 1529 and stayed until his death in 1590. He worked with the indigenous peoples of the area to document their cultures and religions, in large part motivated by the conviction that better understanding of their beliefs and practices would improve the efforts to convert them to Christianity. His methods have led some scholars to consider him the first ethnohistorian, and he is remembered today as much for his ethnographic and linguistic documentation of the Nahua ...
Contributed by The Newberry Library
A Sequence of Sermons for Sundays and Saints’ Days in Nahuatl
Fray Bernardino de Sahagún was a Franciscan missionary who arrived in Mexico from Spain in 1529 and stayed until his death in 1590. He worked with the indigenous peoples of the area to document their cultures and religions, in large part motivated by the conviction that better understanding of their beliefs and practices would improve the efforts to convert them to Christianity. His methods have led some scholars to consider him the first ethnohistorian, and he is remembered today as much for his ethnographic and linguistic documentation of the Nahua ...
Contributed by The Newberry Library
A Sequence of Twenty-Six Additions to the Admonitions
Fray Bernardino de Sahagún was a Franciscan missionary who arrived in Mexico from Spain in 1529 and stayed until his death in 1590. He worked with the indigenous peoples of the area to document their cultures and religions, in large part motivated by the conviction that better understanding of their beliefs and practices would improve the efforts to convert them to Christianity. His methods have led some scholars to consider him the first ethnohistorian, and he is remembered today as much for his ethnographic and linguistic documentation of the Nahua ...
Contributed by The Newberry Library
Thus Saith God: This is My Beloved Son, in Whom I Am Well Pleased; Hear ye Him
This hand-colored woodcut with texts by the noted Protestant theologian Erasmus Alber (also seen as Alberus) was printed in Magdeburg around 1550. It shows the resurrected Christ defeating the enemies of Protestantism, who are depicted in the shape of a three-headed apocalyptic animal: the pope, a Turk, and Interim. Interim refers to the political compromises of 1548 between Catholics and Protestants, particularly the December Leipzig Interim devised by the German Reformation leader Philipp Melanchthon (1497−1560) and agreed to by Emperor Charles V. In the background are Golgotha and the ...
Codex Mexicanus
Codex Mexicanus is an oblong-shaped manuscript that contains calendrical and astrological information, some of which is related to the practice of medicine. The manuscript shows signs of wear, probably because this small-format book would almost always have been carried in the pocket of its owner. The first eight pages contain a series of circles within which letters of the Latin alphabet have been inscribed, most likely designating the days of the month. Images of Catholic saints and apostles also are included. The book includes a history of the Aztecs, or ...
Testerian Catechism
This early-16th century manuscript, known as a Testerian catechism, is one of the more notable documents in the archives of the Center for the Study of the History of Mexico. In the early period of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, before religious instructors had learned the languages of the indigenous peoples, they used pictorial stories describing basic teachings to spread the Christian Gospel. These catechisms were called Testerians, after Father Jacobo de Testera, a Franciscan priest who pioneered this method of teaching.
In the Name of the Holy... (Papal Bull of Pope Paul III)
This Papal Bull of 1537, in Latin, was issued by Pope Paul III, who was pope from 1534 to 1549. Best known for calling the Council of Trent in 1545, Paul III also was concerned with the role of the church in America. The bull discusses evangelization and conversion, including the proper way to apply the sacraments, in particular baptism. This was especially important in the early days of colonial rule, when hundreds and sometimes thousands of indigenous people were baptized every day. One interesting aspect of this bull is ...
Great Miracle of the Apparition of the Queen of Heaven, Saint Mary Our Beloved Mother of Guadalupe, Near the Great City of Mexico in the Place called Tepeyácac
Known also as Nican mopohua (Here it is said), this document is the report in Nahuatl of the history of the apparitions of the Virgin of Guadalupe, on the hilltop of Tepeyac, to the humble Indian Juan Diego, between December 9 and 12, 1531. It is considered the central document of the cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe, which is part of the fundamental identity of Mexicans. Luis Lasso de la Vega, its author, was the vicar of the shrine to the Virgin. The report may be based upon a ...
Iberian or Georgian Alphabet with Prayers
Alphabetum ibericum, sive georgianum: cum Oratione (Iberian or Georgian alphabet with prayers) is one of the first two books printed in Georgian using moveable type. In the 1620s, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the body of the Roman Catholic Church established in the early 17th century for the purpose of spreading Catholicism in non-Catholic countries, began to train monks going to Georgia for missionary work. The monks were taught Georgian by Niceforo Irbachi Giorgiano, the ambassador of the Georgian king, Teimuraz I, in Rome. The sacred ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Georgian and Italian Dictionary
Published in Rome in 1629, this Georgian-Italian dictionary was the first book printed in Georgian using moveable type. The dictionary was compiled by an Italian, Stefano Paolini, with the assistance of Niceforo Irbachi Giorgiano, the Georgian ambassador in Rome. It contains 3084 words, printed in three columns: Georgian words in the left column; Italian transliterations (with accents marked) in the middle column; and an explanation of the meaning of each word, in Italian, in the right column. The Georgian alphabet and the Latin equivalents of each of its letters appear ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Weapon of Religion and the Shield of Certainty
Shem’un al-Turani was born in 1670 near Tur Abdin in present-day Turkey. He studied in Tur Abdin and became a monk at the age of twenty. He was appointed maphrian—historically the prelate second to the patriarch in the hierarchy of the Syriac Orthodox Church—in 1710 and took the name Basileios. Maphrian Basileios Shem’un was martyred in 1740. Kitāb silāḥ al-dīn wa-turs al-yaqīn (The weapon of religion and the shield of certainty) contains his polemical treatise in support of Syriac Orthodox doctrine and practice and against ...
Canticles of Saint Mary
There are four manuscripts of the Cantigas de Santa María (Canticles of Saint Mary): this copy from the National Library of Spain that formerly belonged to the Biblioteca Capitular in Toledo, two copies in the Escorial, and one in Florence, similar to the Toledan copy, but unfortunately missing some content. Written during the rule of Alfonso X, King of Castile and Leon (also known as Alfonso el Sabio, Alfonso the Wise), the canticles are a collection of monodic songs, in Galician language and mensural notation, in honor of the Virgin ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Ninety-Five Theses
Martin Luther’s Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum of 1517, commonly known as the Ninety-Five Theses, is considered the central document of the Protestant Reformation. Its complete title reads: “Out of love and zeal for clarifying the truth, these items written below will be debated at Wittenberg. Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology and an official professor at Wittenberg, will speak in their defense. He asks this in the matter: That those who are unable to be present to debate with us in speech should ...
Paupers' Bible
The name commonly given to this work, Biblia pauperum (Paupers' Bible), does not reflect the true importance of this outstanding manuscript, which might be said to contain the summa of the religious knowledge of its time. The work was commissioned, together with another remarkable manuscript of the Rule of Saint Benedict, by Abbot Petrus I of the Benedictine Abbey of Metten in Bavaria and was completed in 1414–15. To carry out his demanding program of manuscript creation, the abbot engaged artists of note, who were well versed in the ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
On Monastic Vows
De votis monasticis (On monastic vows) is Martin Luther’s attack on the monastic life. Coming just four years after he posted his 95 theses in Wittenberg, the work was an important component of his broader plans for reforming the Christian church in the West. In this booklet, which was written during his stay at Wartburg Castle in 1521—a time when Luther was moving beyond his attacks on indulgences to other issues—the great reformer argued that monks and nuns can violate their vows without committing a sin, since ...