53 results in English
West View of Madrid
Charles Clifford (1819−63) was one of the most important photographers to have worked in Spain in the 19th century and a crucial figure in the history of photography in the country. Clifford was born in the United Kingdom. It is unknown precisely when he went to Spain, but the first time that his name makes an appearance in Madrid is in 1850. By this time, the photographer already had a studio in the city, although most of his output, which consisted of depictions of a variety of localities around ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Postal Route in the Turkestan Region
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Postal Route in the Turkestan Region
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Syr Darya Oblast. City of Tashkent. Moscow Street
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Turkestan Krai. Night Lodging Site for Caravans
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Heyland Cart and Pack Mules
This photograph of a cart and pack mules outside of the Durrani Gate in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mules were important pack animals in the often-difficult terrain, valued for their strength and patient, mild temperament. The photograph shows some of the different kinds of pack harnesses. The massive brick walls at the entrance gate to the city are visible in the background. The photograph is by Sir Benjamin Simpson (1831–1923), who captured many scenes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Artillery Square, Kandahar
This photograph of British Army artillery unit in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A large citadel, possibly Kandahar Bala Hissar (High Fort), dominates the skyline of the photograph, while the Kirka Sharif (Mosque of the Sacred Cloak) is visible in the left background. British soldiers are encamped across the square, near their light and heavy field guns. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ciniselli Circus
The Ciniselli Circus (now the Bolshoi Saint Petersburg State Circus) opened on December 26, 1877. The first stone structure in Russia purpose-built for the circus, it was regarded by many as the most beautiful circus building in Europe. The building was designed by architect Vasily Kenel (1834–93), who also produced this watercolor, which has his signature in the lower right-hand corner. The building was a unique engineering structure for its time, designed and built on the basis of the state-of-the-art engineering principles and methods. For the first time, inner ...
Cart Production. Cart Assembly
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cart Production. Chiseled Sockets for Spokes
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cart Production. Manufacture of Niello Wheels
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cart Production. Preparation of the Rims for a Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cart Production. Rounding off the Wheel Hubs for a Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Bukharan Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Cart Yard in Samarkand
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Horse Harness for Bukharan Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Horse Harness for Kokand Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Kokand Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Parts of a Bukharan Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Parts of a Kokand Cart
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Danzig, Nowadays a Very Crowded Market Town for the North, the West, and the Whole World
This panoramic view of Danzig (present-day Gdańsk) in 1617 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). ‏In the upper-left corner appear the coat of arms of Poland; in the upper-right hand corner, the coat of arms of Danzig. Below is a separately printed key in both Latin and German. At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, addressed to the reader, printed in 13 columns, in Latin and in German ...
A Chinese Official’s Horse-Drawn Cart. China, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
General View of the Gukeichanza Station with a Citadel at Top of the Mountain, near Barkul. Xinjiang, China, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Shiulijingza Station with a Yard and a Temple, on Tian Shan Mountain. Xinjiang, China, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Place de la Republique, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Place de la république (Republic plaza) in the capital city of Algiers, circa 1899. Baedeker’s 1911 The Mediterranean spoke admiringly of “the spacious Place de la République, with the gardens of Square Bresson, adorned with bamboos and magnolias, the Théâtre Municipal, and the most showy cafés.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Norwegian Carriage, Hardanger Fjord, Norway
This photochrome print of a Norwegian girl in a carriage at Hardanger Fjord in Norway is part of “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. In his Peeps at Many Lands: Norway (1909) the British travel writer A.F. Ferryman-Mockler observed that "all that is grand, all that is beautiful, will be found in the Hardanger.” The fjord, located in southern Norway, is approximately five kilometers miles wide at its center and more than 650 meters deep in some places. The fjord is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cart Ride Ocean-Front
This photograph of a woman and her children in Nicaragua is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment to the pursuit of common goals and respect for each other’s ...
Entrance to Bogotá through San Victorino, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) depicts the San Victorino entrance to Bogotá. In the background, as identified by the caption on the painting, are the snow-capped peaks of Tolima, Quindío, Santa Isabel, Ruíz, and Mesa de Herveo. San Victorino was already a well-developed route out to the west of the city in the 18th century. The scene shows people of different social classes, oxen, carriages and carts, and men on horseback. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of ...
The Girard College, Philadelphia
This lithograph shows an exterior view of Girard College at Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, including Founder's Hall and the eastern and western outbuildings. The school buildings, designed by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walter in the Greek Revival style, were constructed in 1833–47. Girard College was established through a bequest from Stephen Girard, a Philadelphia financier and philanthropist, for the creation of a school for poor white male orphans. The illustration is by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804–46), a Swiss-born artist and lithographer, who arrived in Philadelphia from Paris ...
Comlyville near Frankford, Philadelphia
This print, published by Louis A. Godey in the first volume of his Lady’s Book (one of the earliest successful women’s magazines in America), is a pastoral view with mill and factory buildings along Frankford Creek in Comlyville, near Philadelphia. It includes the mill, converted to a calico print works by Smith & Brother in 1827, the loom factory of "Mr. S. Steel," and the dye works of "Mr. Horrick," i.e., Jeremiah Horrocks. In the foreground, two horse-drawn wagons and a man travel on Asylum Road. Horses and ...
American Classical and Military Academy at Mount Airy, Germantown, 8 Miles from Philadelphia
This lithograph shows the American Classical and Military Academy in the Mount Airy section of Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, located some eight miles (13 kilometers) from the center of Philadelphia.  The right wing was built in 1750 as “Mount Airy,” the country seat of Pennsylvania Chief Justice William Allen, and early in the 19th century the area took the building’s name. Founded as Mount Airy Seminary (later Mount Airy College or Collegiate Institute) in 1807, the school served as a military academy in 1826–35 under the superintendence of Augustus ...
Philadelphia Exchange
This lithograph shows the view looking northeast from the intersection of Dock, Third, and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia to the Merchants' Exchange. Built between 1832 and 1833 to the designs of William Strickland (1788–1854), the exchange functioned as a commercial and financial hub and post office and was the first large central building in Philadelphia for the conduct of business. Men are seen walking, carriages are in the streets, and a horse-drawn omnibus has arrived at the front of the building. Fashionably dressed women stand on the corner across ...
Pennsylvania Hall
This print is an exterior view of the abolitionist meeting place and adjacent buildings at Sixth and Haines Streets in Philadelphia. Several pedestrians stroll the sidewalks. A carriage and horse-drawn cart pass by on the street. The hall, erected in 1838 as an arena for "free discussion," was set aflame by hostile mobs on May 17, 1838, after three days of dedication ceremonies and services involving both free blacks and white abolitionists. The ruins of the building continued to stand until the Odd Fellows Society built a hall on the ...
General View of Laurel Hill Cemetery
In the 1830s, a group of influential Philadelphians wanted to establish a rural cemetery that would be naturalistic, serene, and in genteel seclusion. They settled on Laurel Hill at 3822 Ridge Avenue, the former estate of merchant Joseph Sims, which had rocky bluffs and spectacular views and was about six kilometers from the city center. The cemetery, built in 1836–39 after the designs of Scottish-born architect and landscape designer John Notman, is seen in this bird's-eye view of part of the grounds. This view shows horse-drawn carriages and ...
Robert Shoemaker's Wholesale and Retail Drugstore, Southwest Corner of Second and Green Streets, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. Shown here is Shoemaker’s drugstore on the 200 block of Green Street. Signs advertise Wetherill's white lead, drugs, medicines, paints, oils, glass, dyestuffs, "window glass of all sizes," picture glass, "cheap glass for hot beds," "white lead warranted pure by the ton or pound," ready-mixed paints, linseed oil, plasters, potash, and soda. A patron enters past barrels and sacks. Two clerks stand at the long ...
T. Wattson and Sons, Biscuit Bakery, 129 North Front Street, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the busy four-story factory for the bakery at 129 North Front Street, between Chestnut and Walnut Streets. A gentleman, possibly the proprietor Thomas Wattson, stands in one of the open doorways to the bakery as laborers work around him. Near the doorways, workers load kegs onto a horse-drawn "T. Wattson & Sons Biscuit Bakery" wagon and dray. Other men hoist kegs to the upper receiving ...
Keyser & Foxe's Mahogany Steam Saw Mill & Turning Shop, Number 21 Crown Street between Race & Vine Streets, Philadelphia
George G. Heiss was a mid-19th century Philadelphia lithographer, who specialized in views of fire-fighting equipment. This lithograph advertises the sawmill run by Jacob Keyser and Bryan Fox at 21 (later 225) Crown Street. Three men work with mahogany logs. One of them guides a log onto a block-and-tackle lift from the sidewalk, while another holds the ropes and waits for the log on the second level. Another laborer moves a log on a ramp through an open doorway on the first floor. In the foreground, an unhitched dray stands ...
P. Maison's Biscuit Bakery, 134 North Front Street, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the busy three-story bakery at 134 (later 214) North Front Street. Banners attached to the building swing out to awning posts to proclaim "P. Maison's Bakery 134." Another "Bakery" sign extends over the adjacent alley between the business and the neighboring building. A gentleman, possibly the proprietor, stands at the entrance of the building as laborers transport and stack barrels at the open ...
Robert Wood's Steam Iron Railing Works, Ridge Road Above Buttonwood Street, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the long and narrow steam-powered iron railing works on the 1100 block of Ridge Road owned by Robert Wood. Signboards on the facade advertise "Wood's steam iron railing manufactory, all kinds of ornamental & architectural iron work made to order" and "manufacturer of iron railings for cemeteries." Laborers are visible through the open windows and doors on all levels of the factory. Two men carry an iron piece into the building past a display of ornamental iron sculpture, which includes a large lyre. Workers in the street load and unload iron railings and bars. A crowded Girard College & Exchange line omnibus traveling north on Ridge Road has stopped by the factory, and children play on a makeshift seesaw alongside. The image is surrounded by a border of iron-work models; at the base are steps with ornate iron railings and a grand ornamental gateway. Wood’s firm was the largest supplier of sculptural and ornate ironwork to the Laurel Hill ...
Patent Improved Lead Pipe Sheet Lead and Composition Gas Tubes, Manufactured by Tatham & Brothers, Office 15 Minor Street, Philadelphia, and 249 Water Street, New York
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the factory complex at 608 Delaware Avenue (occupied in 1844) for the lead pipe factory established in Philadelphia in 1841 by George N., Henry B., and William P. Tatham. The business office was in Minor Street. Employees work in front of the industrial factory building that is covered with signage and at its wharf. Men lift a barrel with a hoist, guide horse-drawn drays ...
Penn Hotel & Denny's Harness Shop
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the building containing the hotel and tavern operated by John Thompson at 329 Market Street and Robert Denny's saddlery and harness store at 327½ Market Street. Harnesses and other horse paraphernalia hang above the shop's display window and entranceways, including a stable entrance marked "Entertainment for Horses." A man walks his horse through to the rear and a clerk from Denny's ...
Melloy & Ford, Wholesale Tin Ware Manufacturers
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the factory operated by John M. Melloy and Robert Ford at 291 Market Street (later renumbered 723). It promotes the "lowest rates," "quick sales & small profits," and "metallic roofing." The building’s many signs and product advertisements include a large scale model of a coffeepot and prominent displays of tinware in the shop window, on the shelves, and by the door. In front of ...