56 results in English
Illustrations of Guarding the Yellow River
This work is bound in accordion pleat-like leaves, in 15 folded sheets. The illustrations show the locations of flood prevention works along the Yellow River in Henan Province. Included are dykes and raised riverbanks in different areas, beginning in the west with Wushe Xian, crossing Yingze Marsh, and in Zhengzhou, Yuanwu, Zhongmou, Yangwu, Fengqiu, Kaifeng Fu, Chenliu, Xiangfu, and other towns. A number of paper slips are attached to 18 locations, with explanations of the challenges of river work at these locations and descriptions of accidents that occurred during this ...
Contributed by National Central Library
General Atlas Depicting the Conditions of the Yellow River Dykes in Henan Province
This Qing-dynasty atlas painted in color is formatted in accordion pleat-like leaves, in 21 folded sheets. The directions used in the maps are the exact opposite of those commonly used, that is, the south is on the top, the north at the bottom, the west is on the right side, and the east on the left. The maps illustrate the distribution of dykes along the Yellow River within the territory of Henan Province. The atlas starts from the west with Huayin Xian, which borders Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces, and continues ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Colored Waterway Map of the Grand Canal from Yueyang to the Yangtze River Estuary and from Jiangyin to the Forbidden City of Beijing
The world-famous Beijing−Hangzhou Grand Canal is the oldest and longest artificial waterway in the world. Starting from Beijing in the north, it passes southwards to Hangzhou. Construction of the canal, which links some of China’s most important river networks, began in the fifth century BC. By the 13th century, the total length of the canal was more than 2,000 kilometers. Today, its length is 1794 kilometers. This map, executed in the traditional painting style, shows its entire length in a single long scroll. It is one of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Florida's Canal Main Street
Interest in constructing a water route across the Florida peninsula goes back to the colonial rule of the Spanish and the British and continued when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. The earliest American surveys for a possible canal in Florida were undertaken in the wake of excitement surrounding the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the first significant work on a cross-Florida canal as part of New Deal public works programs in Florida. After much debate, construction on route ...
Waters of Destiny
The systematic drainage of the Florida Everglades began in earnest in 1905. Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, then Florida’s governor, committed significant state funds and solicited federal assistance in order to reclaim from underutilization the vast swamplands south of Lake Okeechobee. The ultimate goal of the Everglades reclamation was to access rich “muck” soil, covered in many areas by a thin layer of freshwater. Muck soil consisted of thousands of years of organic material accumulated on top of limestone bedrock. The muck made for ready and productive topsoil, but was quickly ...
Monastery, Canal (19th Century), Solovetskii Island, Russia
This photograph of a canal on Large Solovetskii Island was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated in the southwestern part of the White Sea, the island and its archipelago are the site of the Transfiguration-Solovetskii Monastery, one of the most revered monastic institutions in Russia. Founded as early as 1429 by the monk Savvatii, the monastery experienced its greatest development in the second half of the 16th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
On the Saimaa Canal. Finland
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ghent Gate, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Ghent gate in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The gate, otherwise known as Gentpoort or Porte de Gand, is one of only four remaining medieval gates in Bruges. It was designed by the Flemish architect Jan van Oudenaarde (died 1412) and initially served as a fortification and as a point of exchange for merchants. Bruges was one of Europe’s major commercial centers from the 12th to the 15th ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maison du Franc, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Maison du Franc in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Maison du Franc, also known as Landhuis van het Brugse Vrije (Palace of the Liberty of Bruges) was built in the 1720s, on the basis of the designs of the architect Jan van der Cruycen, and stands at the center of Bruges on the site of an older, 16th-century building. The structure, whose architecture reflects classical and baroque elements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Croix Gate, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the St. Croix gate in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The St. Croix Gate, or Kruispoort, was originally built in 1366–68 and then rebuilt around 1402 by the Flemish architect Jan van Oudenaarde (died 1412), who is also credited with the Ghent Gate (Gentpoort). The gate, which was constructed with white sand–lime bricks, formed a section of Bruges’s defense wall and was the main entrance to the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Quai Vert, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Quai Vert (Green quay) in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Quai Vert is a picturesque waterway that flows through Bruges, alongside some of the city’s best-known buildings, including the Maison du Franc (Palace of the Liberty of Bruges). In his Land and People of the World, the British writer and explorer Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1858–1927) observed: "The Green Quay is well-named. It is a paradise ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Bridge of Sighs, Venice, Italy
This photochrome print of the Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri) in Venice is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Italy” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Made of white limestone and containing two stone-barred windows, the 11-meter-wide bridge was built in 1595–1600 by Antonio Contino (1566–1600). Greatly admired for its decorative Italian Renaissance architecture, the bridge connects the interrogation rooms and prison in the Palazzo Ducale with a newer prison, the Palazzo delle Prigioni, located across the Rio di Palazzo. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Grand Canal, View I, Venice, Italy
This photochrome print of the Grand Canal in Venice is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Italy” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Grand Canal, or the Canalazzo, is a 3.8-kilometer long waterway that flows from northwest to southeast Venice. The 1903 edition of Baedeker's Italy: Handbook for Travellers called it "the main artery of the traffic of Venice." "Handsome houses and magnificent palaces rise on the banks, for this is the street of the Nobili, the ancient aristocracy of Venice ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Volyn Levee on the Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Volyn Bridge in the Distance. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers. This photograph shows the Volyn embankment, with water regulator, on the irrigation canal named in honor of Tsar Nicholas I. In the background is a wooden bridge near the Volyn settlement. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rafts on the Peter the Great Canal. City of Shlisselburg. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guardhouse at the Thirty-Second Verst of the Emperor Peter the Great Canal. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Village of Naziia. Emperor Peter the Great Canal. Russian Empire
The Mariinsky Canal System (now known as the Volga-Baltic Waterway) links Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin. Among the system’s components was the Old Ladoga Canal, formerly known as the Emperor Peter I Canal, which followed the southern shore of Lake Ladoga and was intended to protect shipping from the sudden storms that frequently arose over the lake. By the late 19th century this canal had silted up and was replaced with a parallel New Ladoga Canal. This 1901 photograph shows the village of Naziia, located where the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Right Bank of the Onezhskii Canal. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Barge on the Mariinskii Canal System. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Stone-Excavating Machine in the Canal. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Onezhskii Canal near Voznesene. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Type of Old Sluice Gates. Belozerskii Canal. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Near the Small Town of Iustili, on the Saimaa Canal
This idyllic autumn view was taken in 1903 on the Saimaa Canal near the village of Juustila, situated to the northwest of Saint Petersburg in what was then the Grand Duchy of Finland. Opened for transportation in 1856 and renovated in the 20th century, the Saimaa Canal is 57 kilometers in length and connects Lake Saimaa (Finland) with the Gulf of Finland near the city of Vyborg (present-day Leningrad Oblast). The canal now operates by joint agreement between Russia and Finland. Juustila was the site of villas for Vyborg’s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
On the Saimaa Canal. Finland
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Canal in Solovetskii Monastery. Solovetski Islands
The Murmansk Railroad was built by the Russian government during World War I to connect Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) to the ice-free port of Romanov-on-Murman (now Murmansk). Construction lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917 when the line was completed. Near the route was the Transfiguration Monastery, located on Great Solovetskii Island. The main island was dotted with dozens of lakes, and ameliorative work for drainage and transportation began as early as the 16th century. Shown here is a boat canal begun in the early 20th century between Lake Valdai ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Canal in Solovetskii Monastery. Solovetski Islands
The Murmansk Railroad was built by the Russian government during World War I to connect Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) to the ice-free port of Romanov-on-Murman (now Murmansk). Construction lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917 when the line was completed. Near the route was the Transfiguration Monastery, located on Great Solovetskii Island. The main island was dotted with dozens of lakes, and ameliorative work for drainage and transportation began as early as the 16th century. Shown here is a boat canal under construction between Lake Valdai and Lake Kotlovannoe (the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Canal in Solovetskii Monastery. Solovetski Islands
The Murmansk Railroad was built by the Russian government during World War I to connect Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) to the ice-free port of Romanov-on-Murman (now Murmansk). Construction lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917 when the line was completed. Near the route was the Transfiguration Monastery, located on Great Solovetskii Island. The main island was dotted with dozens of lakes, and ameliorative work for drainage and transportation began as early as the 16th century. Shown here is a boat canal under construction between Lake Valdai and Lake Kotlovannoe (the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Volyn Bridge on the Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers to this land where living conditions were harsh. This photograph shows a wooden bridge over the irrigation canal named in honor of Tsar Nicholas I near the Volyn settlement. On the right ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Konnogvardeiskii Bridge on the Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers. This photograph shows the wooden Horse Guards Bridge over the irrigation canal named in honor of Tsar Nicholas I. The grand duke named this modest bridge after one of the most privileged ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Outlet from Emperor Nicholas I Canal to the Main Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This photograph of canal embankments gives some idea of the massive earthworks involved in creating the irrigation system. Shown here is the outlet of the Tsar Nicholas I Canal (which served the grand duke’s estate) from the mainline canal, begun in 1907 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lake Alkakul and a Bridge over the Main Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This photograph shows a dilapidated wooden bridge over the mainline northern canal, constructed in1907-13. The top of the levee was used as a road along the arc of the canal. The canal was reconstructed and enlarged in the Soviet period, when it was known ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sloping Portion of Emperor Nicholas I Canal near Government House. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr-Darya River. This view, taken from a nearby house used for government administration, reveals the massive earthworks involved in creating the irrigation works. The system included the mainline canal (1907–13) and the Tsar Nicholas I Canal, which served the grand duke’s estate. Visible in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Engineer Morgunenkov's Water-Raising Machine on Emperor Nicholas I Canal near Government House. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This view, taken from a nearby house used for government administration, shows construction work on the Tsar Nicholas I Canal, which served the grand duke’s estate. The large circular metal device partially submerged in the muddy water is identified as a pumping ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sluice and Regulator at the First Verst on Emperor Nicholas I Canal with a Temporary Bridge. Begavat. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract Russian settlers. This photograph, taken near Begavat village, shows the sluice and water regulator at the first verst of the main canal, which the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Koksaraiskaia Dam at the Head of Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Intake from the Syr-Darya River. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Shown here is the Koksaraisk Dam at the head of the Emperor Nicholas I Canal, which provided intake from the Syr-Darya River. A viaduct on wooden piles leads up to the dam, where a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tree-Lined Canal
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tree-Lined Canal
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Yurts along a Canal
In the late 19th century, the Russian Empire acquired large territories in Central Asia that became known as Russian Turkestan (comprised of present-day Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan). The region was suitable for growing high-quality cotton, and cotton production rapidly became a priority in the Russian development of the territory. The construction of extensive irrigation projects, such as this one on the Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan), was essential to this process. The main source of water was the Murgab (Morghab) River, which flows northwestward from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Complete View of the Canal from Jiangsu to Beijing
Jiangsu zhi Beijing yun he quan tu (A complete view of the canal from Jiangsu to Beijing) is made of a long continuous sheet of paper folded into accordion-like leaves. It has 21 folds, each 24.1 centimeters high and 13 centimeters wide. The title at the beginning is handwritten in ink and the calligraphy is in the official script style. The work was printed in the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), but the author and the date of publication are unknown. The three-line inscription on the left indicates that the ...
Contributed by National Central Library
The Kiel Canal and Heligoland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. The Kiel Canal and Heligoland is Number 41 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Construction of the Kiel Canal connecting the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was one of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bird’s-Eye View of Property on Alleghany Avenue, Philadelphia, 25th Ward
This print shows a bird's eye view of the grid plan of the city of Philadelphia, looking southeast from Frankford Road in northeast Philadelphia toward the Delaware River. The area depicted lies between Westmoreland Street and a few blocks south of Columbia Street, consisting mainly of the open land surrounding the Aramingo Canal, the Reading Railroad depot between Lehigh Avenue and Somerset Street, and the tracks of the Philadelphia, Trenton, and New York Railroad line. A few dwellings, churches, and other structures comprise the landscape, with a heavier concentration ...
A New Map for Travelers through the United States of America Showing the Railroads, Canals and Stage Roads, 1846
This 1846 map of the United States by John Calvin Smith is from Smith’s The Illustrated Hand-book for Travelers through the United States. Smith published editions of this popular guide, each of which contained a foldout map of the United States, in 1846, 1847, 1849, 1851, and 1856. Framed in decorative borders, the map indicates drainage and state boundaries, shows cities and towns with distances along roads and railroads, and identifies the major Indian tribes living west of the Mississippi River. The inset maps on the right show the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress