120 results in English
The Defeat of Montaperti
This manuscript is an illustrated account of the events relating to the famous Battle of Montaperti of September 4, 1260, which is mentioned by Dante in The Divine Comedy. The battle resulted in the victory of the armed faction of the Ghibellines, supporting the Holy Roman Emperor and led by Siena, over the Guelphs, supporting the pope and led by Florence. The manuscript was written and illustrated throughout by Niccolò di Giovanni di Francesco di Ventura da Siena, who signed it and stated that he completed the text on December ...
The Enwreathed Pearl: The Conquest of Mecca, the Revered
This manuscript relates the history of the fath (conquest) of Mecca, the commercial and religious capital of Arabia, by the Prophet Muhammad in 630. The work is an abridged version, drawn from the many accounts in early texts, of the years of battle, negotiation, and exhortation that culminated in the conquest. The author is probably Egyptian scholar and Sufi Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Bakri (1493 or 1494−1545 or 1546), although other members of this prominent family of scholars also have been credited with the work. The main source for the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Engagement in the Khost Country from a Drawing
This photograph of a drawing of a military engagement near Khost (now Khowst), Afghanistan, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The identity of the artist is unknown. The image appears to show a skirmish in late 1878–January 1879 that involved the Kurram Valley Field Force fighting against unidentified Afghan adversaries. In the foreground are massed British cavalry and dragoons (mounted infantry), while ahead of them infantrymen fire upon the enemy in the distance. A section of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Battle of Catalan: Dated the 4th of January in 1817
This hand-colored manuscript map depicts the Battle of Catalan, January 4, 1817, in which the Portuguese Army, operating from southern Brazil, defeated forces led by José Gervasio Artigas, the leader in the struggle for Uruguayan independence. Portugal was tacitly allied with the government in Buenos Aires, which was seeking to retain its grip on the eastern province of Argentina that would become the independent country of Uruguay.
View and Map of the Affair at Ratan, of August 20, 1809
This watercolor by the Swedish artist and draftsman Carl Gustaf Gillberg (1774–1855) depicts the fighting at Ratan on August 20, 1809 between the armies of Sweden and Russia. Contemporaneously with the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century Sweden and Russia fought what became known as the Finnish War, which had the effect of radically altering the political topography of the Baltic. Sweden’s defeat put an end to its domination in the region. Finland, previously a province of Sweden, became a grand duchy under the rule ...
History of Islamic Conquests
Tarikh-e Futuhat-e Islamiyah (History of Islamic conquests) is a two volume work chronicling Islamic historical events, particularly wars, battles, and conquests. It is also known as Tawarikh-e Islam (History of Islam) and Futuhat-e nabawai (Conquests of the Prophet). This lithographic copy is a Persian translation from the original Arabic work by Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Zayni Dahlan (1816 or 1817−86), an eminent scholar of Mecca and Medina. The translation was a collective effort by “scholars of Herat . . . for an Afghan audience to know about the history of Islam.” It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Fortified Pass. Colonel Wetherall Advancing to the Capture of Saint-Charles
This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume 25, Number 1, March 1961
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
British Battles During 1918 (8th August to 11th November 1918)
This colorful map was produced by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the UK War Office, printed by Waterlow & Sons, and made available for public sale shortly after the end of World War I. It provides a summary of the Hundred Days offensive by British, American, and British Empire troops that led to the German surrender on November 11, 1918. It shows the Allied advance as distinctly ordered phases, colored first yellow, then green, red, and blue. Diagonal stripes in these same colors show German withdrawals. The numbers ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War
This print showing a battle between troops on horseback is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “A brave detachment of Cossacks destroyed German hussars near Sochaczew.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often depicted narratives from ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War. The Defeat of the Germans near Warsaw
This print showing combat amongst trees and the defeat of the Germans in a battle near Warsaw is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Siberian Corps demonstrated particular valor in the battles near Warsaw. They captured many prisoners of the 20th German Corps in the battle in the Moshidlovskii Forest. The 17th Corps delivered the main offensive in the area of Błonie and Pruszków and suffered the most. There, Siberians together with the Russian corps inflicted huge losses ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War. The Belgians Explode their Own Dams and Defeat of German Units near Mechelen
This print showing German troops caught in an unexpected flood in Belgium is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As German units were bypassing Antwerp in the direction of Dendermonde near Mechelen, they were caught off guard by a flood caused by the blowing up of the dams by the Belgians. The whole area was flooded. While the Germans were trying to rescue their weapons, the Belgians opened fire on them from the Antwerp forts. Meanwhile the water level ...
Contributed by The British Library
"Death Valley." The Battle of Mykhaylivka Village
This print showing a battle at the village of Mykhaylivka where the Russians defeated the Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Under a torrent of Austrian shrapnel and machine guns, our offensive columns quickly gained advanced positions and forced the enemy units into the ravine. Meanwhile our defensive columns were able to reach the opposite hills, and then enclose the enemy division pushed into the ravine. After a few well-aimed shots from the Russian batteries, the enemy ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle Near Vladimir-Volynsk
This print showing a battle near Volodymyr-Volynsky (present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Enemy artillery, firing over its own cavalry, shelled the trenches in front of the city occupied by our troops. The Austrians were quickly approaching. A terrible moment arrived. Hungarian cavalry, arrayed in a wide semi-circle in front of the city, bravely raced forward. It seemed that after a few minutes they would enter the city. But loud sounds and strange crackling were heard ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Defeat of the Turks at Sarikamish
This print showing the defeat of the Turks by the Russians at a battle at Sarikamish on the Russian-Turkish border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the Battle of Sarikamish, despite the severe cold and a blizzard, our gallant troops chased the Turks out from their strong positions with amazing tenacity. When the Turkish troops were defeated and began to retreat, leaving their weapons and the wounded behind, our brave soldiers vigorously pursued them. Оne Turkish corps ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. Sinking Four Turkish Cargo Ships
This print showing the sinking of four Turkish cargo ships is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “After a heavy bombardment of the Turkish port of Zonguldak in the Black Sea, our detachment noticed an enemy unit at sea. It consisted of a few warships and four cargo ships carrying troops and supplies. After sinking the cargo ships by artillery fire and causing some damage to the other vessels that managed to escape, our detachment returned to Sevastopol safely ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Capture оf Bayazid
This print showing the capture of the fortress of Bayazid (located in what was then Turkish Armenia) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our gallant Caucasian army, advancing on the fortress of Bayazid in order to capture it, attacked the heavily fortified Turkish positions at Bazyrgan and, having destroyed them, put the Turks to flight. As they fled, the enemy left behind their weapons and dispersed into the villages. On October 21, our troops triumphantly entered Bayazid. This ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. The Battle of the Vistula River
This print showing the Battle of the Vistula River (in present-day Poland) between Russian and German forces is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During a night-time German offensive on Warsaw, intense fighting broke out near Blonie. Fire from artillery shells and the burning of houses set on fire by the Germans lit the night. Shrapnel burst in the air in different directions, the earth was shaking from the thundering of weapons, and guns fired unceasingly. Despite the lethal ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. The Effect of Our High Explosive Shells
This print showing the devastating effect of a Russian high explosive shell on German troops is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Skillfully built enemy trenches were hard to capture with ordinary artillery fire in the battles at the Vistula River. Only well-aimed shots by high explosive shells managed to force the Germans out of their deep burrows. These high explosive shells are so terrifyingly effective that even Germany’s famous skills in the military arts proved absolutely powerless ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. Russian Troops Crossing the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing Russian troops crossing the Carpathian Mountains is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Uzhoksky Pass in the Carpathian Mountains is witness to the heroic deeds of the Russian troops. On September 11, after a fierce battle, the pass was taken by us with heavy losses to the enemy. A legend about the impassability of the eastern Carpathian Mountains was dispelled when our gallant army passed them, opening a broad path to Hungary.” Lubok is a ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War
This print showing Russian and German troops engaged in battle is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Brave Russian soldiers attacking the enemy with bayonets on the German front.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Marijampolė
This print showing the Battle of Marijampolė (in present-day Lithuania) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As Russian troops were retreating for strategic reasons from East Prussia, they had to deal not only with the German troops, but also with civilians in German cities and towns. In a small village, called Darkmen, the entire German population, including young women and 12-year-olds, shot at Russian troops from the windows of houses, the roofs of barns, and cellars. The villagers ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Augustów
This print showing the Battle of Augustów (in present-day Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Germans' attempt to cross the Neman River and enter the rear of our armies in Poland, by cutting the railroad lines from Moscow to Petrograd, ended in a great defeat. Driven from the Neman, the Germans made ​desperate attempts to slow the offensive by our troops. A particularly intense battle took place near Augustów. The Germans were defeated by our artillery ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle with the Turks
This print showing a battle between Cossacks and Turks is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Taking advantage of the night darkness, the Turks, dressed in white cloaks, stole up to the location of the Cossack outpost and attacked the Cossacks with bayonets. At the same time a Kurdish cavalry unit attacked them from the flank. A terrible massacre began. The Cossacks then broke through the lines of the Turks, took the hill, and entrenched themselves. In the morning ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Ardahan
This print showing the Battle of Ardahan (in present-day Turkey) is from the collection of World War I Russian lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “On the night of December 20, our troops, while fighting, force-marched to Ardahan from two sides—from the west and the north. There was a heavy fog. The Turks, firmly settled in the trenches, met our troops with an outpouring of bullets and shrapnel. Late at night the commanding officer of the western detachment led his troops on an assault of ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Austrian Army Near L'viv
This print showing a battle between the Russian and Austrian armies near L’viv (in present-day Ukraine; at that time the city of Lemberg in Austria-Hungary) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “According to the headquarters of the commander in chief, after a seven day battle, our army took advanced and heavily fortified positions near L’viv, 15–20 versts east of the city, and approached the main L’viv forts. After very heavy fighting on August 19 ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great War. Russian Troops Crossing the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing Russian troops crossing the Carpathian Mountains is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our gallant troops endure incredible hardships during their crossing of the Carpathian Mountains; it seems that all is against the Russians: cliffs, impenetrable goat paths, the most severe frosts and, besides all this, behind each stone and ledge of a rock the cruel enemy is vigilantly eyeing every step taken by us. But nothing can stop the victorious march of our heroes, Russian ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Heroic Feat by Non-commissioned Officer Avvakum Volkov, Who Captured the Austrian Flag
This print showing Russian troops fighting Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Avvakum Volkov, a volunteer non-commissioned officer, Full Cavalier of Saint George, was brought to one of the Moscow military hospitals. For his outstanding bravery he was granted a promotion and a reward of 500 rubles. Volkov earned his last two honors in battles against the Austrians. Accompanied by seven soldiers, Volkov went on a reconnaissance mission and soon encountered Austrian dragoons, nine enlisted men, one ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. The Battle of Augustów. German Troops Crossing the Neman
This print showing German troops crossing the Neman River at the Battle of Augustów (in present-day Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “From the report from the headquarters of the Chief of Staff. The Battle of Augustów ended with a victory on September 20. The Germans' defeat was complete, and now they are retreating to the borders of East Prussia in a disorderly manner. Our valiant troops vigorously pursued the enemy, who is leaving behind wagons, guns ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. A Heroic Feat by Cossack Gumilov, Who Rescued a Wounded Officer
This print showing the rescue of a wounded Russian officer is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Some of the wounded brought to Petrograd from the Austrian battlefields told an interesting story about a heroic feat by the Cossack Gumilov. The Cossack took part in the Battle of L’viv. Together with three of his friends he reached the woods, where they drove off some Austrian cavalrymen. Gumilov went ahead and came to the edge of the forest. A ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. A Heroic Feat and Death of the Famous Pilot Staff Captain P. N. Nesterov
This print showing the collision of two planes in mid-air and honoring the Russian pilot Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov recently saw an Austrian airplane flying over the location of our troops near Zhovkva that was about to drop a bomb. Nesterov got in his airplane, attacked the enemy and, ramming the Austrian airplane, destroyed it and thus prevented casualties to our troops from the bomb. Nesterov ...
Contributed by The British Library
Great European War. Russian Troops Capture Galich Under the Command of Lieutenant General A. A. Brusilov, Who Was Awarded the Cross of Saint George of 4th Class for This Operation
This print showing Russian troops capturing the area of Galich (in present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As reported from the Commander in Chief's Headquarters, our left wing covered 220 versts from August 4 to 21, while being engaged from August 7 to 21 in a continuous battle with the enemy. The main forces of the enemy had established strong positions between Kamenka and Galich, where they were destroyed on August 18 and 19. In ...
Contributed by The British Library
First Nerchinsk Regiment of Zabaikal Cossack Troops
The First Nerchinsk Cossack Regiment was created in 1898 on the basis of the First Chita Regiment. In May 1899, the regiment was relocated from Chita to the Ussuriisk Region. In 1900, it was sent to Manchuria in connection with Russia’s participation in the European effort to quell the Boxer Rebellion, an uprising against foreign influence in China. The regiment later participated in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 before returning to Chita after a six-year absence. This book is a historical outline of the regiment’s activities in 1898-1906 ...
Contributed by Russian State Library
St. Augustine: Part (Below Thirty Degrees Latitude) is on the Mainland of Florida, but the Sea Coast is More Low-Lying and thus Torn Away and Rendered Island-Like
This map is the earliest engraving of any city or territory now part of the United States. It also includes the dorado fish, one of the natural history subjects drawn by John White, governor of the first Anglo-American settlement in America, in the Hatteras region, then part of Virginia (now North Carolina). Sir Francis Drake’s 1585-86 raid on the West Indies picked up the Virginia settlers and returned them to Europe. In the course of the return voyage, the author of this view-plan was able to copy the figure ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Battles of Bull Run Near Manassas
This printed map by the Office of the Chief Engineer of the War Department details the fighting at the Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. Named for the creek or “run” in northern Virginia along which the fighting took place, Bull Run was the first major battle of the American Civil War. After halting several attacks ordered by Union commander General Irvin McDowell, the Confederates under General Pierre Beauregard launched a successful counterattack that drove the tired and inexperienced Union forces back toward Washington. The failure of the ...
European Cavalry Battle Scene
This is the first in a pair of original gouache paintings by F. Oetinger showing a violent cavalry battle during the Seven Years' War (1756-63), a conflict that involved all the major European powers and was fought on the European continent as well as in the colonies; it became known as the first global war. As a result of the conflict, France lost most of its North American colonies, Prussia reemerged as the dominant power in Europe, and Great Britain emerged as the world’s most powerful nation. The painting ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Attack on a Barricade in Paris, 1848
This unsigned early pencil sketch by British artist John Everett Millais (1829-96) shows the chaos of the February 1848 revolution in Paris that ended the reign of Louis-Philippe and established the French Second Republic. In February 1848, the French merchant classes erected barricades throughout Paris to protest their lack of political rights and the difficulties caused by an extended economic depression. In an incident outside the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a soldier fired into a crowd, inciting a riot. By the end of February, Louis-Philippe had fled and the opposition ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Indian Demons Attacking Fort Defended by European Troops
This unsigned watercolor by an unknown Indian artist depicts the events of the Third Mysore War (1790-92). The Anglo-Mysore wars were a series of conflicts in the late 18th century that were fought between the Kingdom of Mysore, located in southwestern India, and the British East India Company. After victories in the first two wars, Mysore, led by Tipu Sultan, invaded the nearby coastal state of Travancore, which was a British ally. This led to the Third Mysore War, which the British won. Although the royal family of Mysore was ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Saint Augustine Map, 1589
This engraved hand-colored map or view-plan by Baptista Boazio depicts Sir Francis Drake's attack on Saint Augustine on May 28-29, 1586. Boazio, an Italian who worked in London from about 1585 to 1603, made maps to illustrate accounts of English expeditions and campaigns. He prepared a series of maps marking Drake's route for Walter Bigges' work on Drake's expedition to the West Indies, first published in 1588 and followed by later editions. This map highlights an episode from Drake's Caribbean expedition, pictorially portraying how the English ...
At the Front! Every Fit Briton Should Join Our Brave Men at the Front. Enlist Now
Until March 2, 1916, when the Military Service Act introduced conscription, Great Britain’s World War I army was comprised entirely of volunteers. Many of the most famous wartime posters were recruitment appeals. This 1915 poster, published in London for the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, shows cavalry in battle, with horses reacting to an explosion in the foreground. It calls upon every physically and mentally fit Briton to enlist. The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee was set up following the outbreak of war in August 1914. A cross-party organization chaired by the prime ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
God Strikes at an Injustice with a Thunderbolt, and a Young Man with Bullets
This World War I poster showing a man with an axe and a rifle joining a battle is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to join the Czechoslovak Legion to fight against Austria-Hungary and Germany. The Czech lands and Slovakia were at that time part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by fighting on the Allied side. Preissig ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lend the Way They Fight. Buy Bonds to Your Utmost
This World War I poster, showing an American infantryman hurling a hand grenade at German soldiers in a trench, invokes the image of Americans in combat on the Western front in France to urge citizens at home to purchase bonds to finance the war. The United States government issued bonds, also called Liberty Bonds, in 1917 and 1918, raising a total of $21.5 billion for the war effort. Many of the bonds were bought by banks and financial institutions as investments, but a massive public relations campaign was mounted ...
Contributed by Library of Congress