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Explanation of the Telescope
The author of the work was Tang Ruowang (Chinese name of Johann Adam Schall von Bell, 1592–1666), the German Jesuit missionary, who, together with Jin Nige (Nicolas Trigault, 1577–1628), arrived in China in 1622. After studying Chinese in Beijing, Schall was sent on mission to Xi’an. He returned to Bejing in 1630 to continue the work of Deng Yuhan (Johannes Terentius, 1576–1630), the Swiss Jesuit missionary, on revising the calendar and devising various astronomical instruments. For his work, he received a plaque with the inscription “Imperial ...
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National Central Library
Nautical Astrolabe
This nautical astrolabe is thought to be among the earliest surviving nautical astrolabes and dates from about 1500−1520. Most nautical astrolabes had a carved mater (graduated circular element), unlike the solid and compact instrument shown here, which bears a resemblance to the astrolabes of Diogo Ribeiro (died 1533), a Portuguese cartographer and inventor who spent most of his life in Spain. The purpose of nautical astrolabes was to measure the altitude of the sun or a star above the horizon. Navigators could determine a ship’s latitude by knowing ...
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Cabildo of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands
Dom Pedro II Observatory, Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: North Face of the Three Pavillions of the Observatory
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
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National Library of Brazil
Dom Pedro II Observatory, Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: Overview of the Observatory from the Northeast with the Three Pavilions and the Collimators of the Meridian Circle Telescope
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
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National Library of Brazil
Dom Pedro II Observatory, Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: Pavilion of the Equatorial Telescope of the First Lieutenant Índio do Brasil. Main Central Pavillion of the Meridian Circle Telescope and Large Equatorial Telescope of the Barão de Teffé. Pavillion of the Equatorial Telescope of the Lieutenant Commander Calheiros da Graça. View from the Southeast, from the Hillside
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
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National Library of Brazil
Dom Pedro II Observatory, Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: Interior View of the East Part of the Main Central Pavillion with the Meridian Circle Telescope, Sidereal Pendulum and the Electric Chronograph
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
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National Library of Brazil
Dom Pedro II Observatory, Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: Interior View of the Western Part of the Main Central Pavillion with the Equatorial Telescope of the Barão de Teffé
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Dom Pedro II Observatory, Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: Interior View of the East Pavillion with the Equatorial Telescope of the Lieutenant Commander Calheiros da Graça
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Dom Pedro II Observatory, Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: Interior View of the West Pavillion with the Equatorial Telescope of the First Lieutenant Índio do Brasil
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
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National Library of Brazil
The Observatory Showing Armillary Sphere and Other Astronomical Instruments, Beijing, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
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National Library of Brazil
Instruments for the Restoration of Astronomy
Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) was a Danish astronomer who built the best observatory in Europe and set a new standard for accurate celestial observations in the era before the invention of the telescope. His noble birth enabled him to pursue his true interests in the humanities and the sciences, particularly astronomy. He became adept at designing scientific instruments and making observations during his early travels in Europe. Upon his return to Denmark he won favor with King Frederick II, who provided him with monetary support to continue his astronomical researches ...
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Smithsonian Institution
Observing a Solar Eclipse on January 1, 1907, near the Cherniaevo Station in the Tian-Shan Mountains above the Saliuktin Mines. Golodnaia Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
Observing a Solar Eclipse on January 1, 1907 near the Cherniaevo Station in the Tian-Shan Mountains above the Saliuktin Mines. Golodnaia Steppe
This unusual photograph shows preparations for observing a total solar eclipse on January 1 (14 in the Gregorian calendar), 1907, at the Cherniaevo Station settlement near the Saliutkin Mines in the Tian-Shan Mountains. Located in Central Asia near the border between China and present-day Kyrgyzstan, the range derives its name from the Chinese for “celestial mountains.” The first Russian to study the mountains was the noted Russian geographer Peter Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, who explored the region in 1856 and 1857. The high elevation and clear dry air were ideal for observation purposes ...
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Library of Congress
The Brazilian Astronomical Commission: Transit of Venus on December 6, 1882
This album commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur in eight-year pairs at intervals of ...
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National Library of Brazil