36 results in English
Upper View of the Castillo del Morro Situated at the Mouth of the Bay of Havana
This 18th-century manuscript map shows the plan of Morro Castle, located at the entrance of Havana Bay, Cuba. The fortress was built by the Spaniards, starting in 1585. The Italian military engineer Battista Antonelli (1547–1616) was commissioned to design the fortifications. The structure originally was conceived as a small fort surrounded by a dry moat, but it was expanded and rebuilt on several occasions and became a major fortress of great strategic importance for the island. The map is oriented with north to the left and tilted up at ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Sangallo’s Sienese Sketchbook
The so-called Sienese sketchbook of the famous architect and engineer Giuliano da Sangallo was originally in the library of Sienese scholar Giovanni Antonio Pecci. The librarian Giuseppe Ciaccheri, a committed and passionate collector who enriched the Biblioteca comunale degli Intronati di Siena with works of art of outstanding quality, acquired it in 1784. Together with the Codice Barberiniano in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, the sketchbook bears witness to the architect's prolific production of drawings and is a valuable source of knowledge about his work. The small format and the ...
Theatrical Design
Francisco Rizi was a painter of Italian descent who trained in the workshop of Vicente Carducho. In 1637 he began to work for King Philip IV of Spain, who appointed him the royal painter in 1656. His most productive period coincided with the reign of Philip, for whom he worked both on decorations of a mythological character for the Alcázar de Toledo and on the design and construction of theater sets from 1657 on. This drawing probably was made for a theatrical presentation at the Buen Retiro Palace, Madrid. It ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Notes on Architectural Perspective
These elementary architectural sketches with extensive notes are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi people, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The artist most likely was a Dutchman, born in the 17th century, who was attached in some capacity to the Dutch East India Company and possibly en route to the Dutch East Indies or on his way back to the ...
Study for Woolworth Building, New York
On April 24, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson pressed a button in Washington, DC, that first illuminated the more than 5,000 windows in the 60-story Woolworth Building, the tallest building in the world at that time. Located on Broadway in lower Manhattan, New York City, the building was a triumph of American construction technology and architectural prowess. Known as "the Cathedral of Commerce," it was clad in gleaming architectural terra-cotta, with a gilded roof ascending to 793 feet (233 meters). Shown here is a sketch elevation of the building by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plans for the Cabildo of Gran Canaria
Presented here is the set of plans and elevations for the head office of the Cabildo de Gran Canaria (Council of Gran Canaria), located on Bravo Murillo Street, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. The plans are preserved in the General Archive of the Cabildo. These architectural drawings have exceptional documentary value. They are the only complete surviving set of plans of several that were used in the workshop of the architect, Miguel Martín-Fernández de la Torre, who worked on the project between 1929 and 1932. The plans are dated Las ...
Drawings for the Bid of Fitting Furniture and Interior Design of the New Branch of the Island Council of Gran Canaria
These drawings are part of the documentation that the sculptor Juan Márquez (1903−80) presented as part of his bid for the furnishing and interior decoration of the new offices of the Cabildo of Gran Canaria (Council of Gran Canaria), located at Bravo Murillo Street in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. These copies are the only surviving document set and provide insights into the proposals offered by Márquez. The competition to select the designer of these interior spaces was governed by the technical tender documentation, issued on October 15, 1938 ...
Plan of the Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau
Shown here is the plan of the Jiangnan General Machinery Manufacturing Bureau located in Shanghai, with the title on the top, Jiangnan zhi zao zong ju ping mian tu (Plan of the Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau). The abbreviated names of the bureau were Jiangnan zhi zao ju (Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau) and Jiangnan zhi zao zong ju (Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau). It was also known as Shanghai ji qi ju (Shanghai Machinery Bureau). Established to produce military equipment during the Westernization movement of the Qing dynasty, the bureau was the most ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Yangshi Lei Archives, 1. Vertical Plan of the Circular Gate at Lüxin Shuwu Library
Shown here is the vertical elevation of a circular decorative gate at the Lȕxin Shuwu library (Library of faith keeping), situated in a corner area in the Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace), a vast complex of gardens and palaces constructed in the 18th−19th centuries in the northwest suburbs of Beijing. An imperial library often functioned as a place to collect books, give lectures, hold discussions, or administer civil examinations. It was also possible for the emperor to rest, read, work, or interview various people there. The circular-shaped shield or ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Yangshi Lei Archives, 2. Plan of Jiuzhou Qingyan at Yuanmingyuan
Shown here is the site plan of the Hall of Jiuzhou Qingyan, one of the 40 scenic spots in Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace), a vast complex of gardens and palaces constructed in the 18th−19th centuries in the northwest suburbs of Beijing. It was situated between the front and back lakes and was the center of the Jiuzhou scenic region. Being the largest building group in the back lake area, it was originally a place for the lodging of the emperors and empresses. On a medial axis the plan ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Yangshi Lei Archives, 3. Site Plan of Paiyun Dian (the Cloud-Dispelling Hall) and Foxiangge (the Pavilion of the Fragrance of the Buddha) of the Summer Palace
Shown here is the site plan of two of the most important building complexes in the Summer Palace, the Paiyun Dian (Cloud-Dispelling Hall) and Foxiangge (The Pavilion of the Fragrance of the Buddha). The Summer Palace is a vast landscape of gardens, palaces, and lakes in imperial Beijing, and the Paiyun Dian and Foxiangge are the most complete architectural arrangements at the palace. They also represent the richest building group on a medial axis. The layout progresses upwards, layer by layer in an orderly way, from the Yunhui Yuyu Archway ...
Contributed by National Library of China
United States Capitol, Washington, D.C.: East Front Elevation, Rendering
Construction of the Capitol, the building that houses the U.S. Congress, began in 1793 and was largely completed by 1865, when the Capitol’s second dome was finished. The principal architects were William Thornton (1759-1828), B. Henry Latrobe (1764-1820), Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844), and Thomas Ustick Walter (1804-87). This elevation by Alexander Jackson Davis (1803-92), rendered in ink, watercolor, and wash, shows the east front of the Capitol as it appeared in 1834. After studying at the American Academy of Fine Arts in New York, Davis began his career as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plan, Imperial Military Middle School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress reproduces an architectural drawing for the Imperial Military Middle School in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Section of the Foundation inside the Tomb
This sketch of the interior of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Interior of the Tomb. View of the Family Crypt of Tamerlane
This striking sketch of the crypt at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Plans, Elevations, and Sections
This plan, elevation and sections of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"), which suffered major damage over the centuries. Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). One of the Doors
This sketch of a door at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Deruni Ishrat-Khan. Plans, Elevations, and Sections
These plans, sections and elevations of two memorial complexes in Samarkand, (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The upper drawings include the plan of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex dedicated to a revered 9th century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Kutbi-Chaardakhum (Sheikh Nuredin Basir) and Kok Tam. Plans, Elevations, and Sections
These plans, sections and elevations of structures at the Kok Tam [sic] palace in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. On the left of this page is a plan, section and elevation of the large 16th-century mausoleum dedicated to the spiritual leader ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleums of Rukhabad and Ak Sarai. Plans, Facades, and Sections
These plans, elevations and sections of two mausoleums in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. On the left is the site plan of the mausoleum known as Rukhabad (“dwelling of the soul”), a centralized domed structure located near the Timurid mausoleum Gur-Emir ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. Plan, Elevation, and Sections
This plan, section and elevation of the Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex (khanaka) was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word berun (outer) added ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar and Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Plans, Elevations, and Sections
These plans, sections and elevations of the Khodzha Akhrar shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan), are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. On the upper left is the site plan for a group of structures dedicated to the memory of the renowned 15th-century mystic Khodzha Akhrar (1403-89 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Namazga Mosque. Plan, Elevation, and Sections
This plan, section and elevation of the Namazga Mosque in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. A namazga mosque was specifically intended to mark Eid al-Fitr (a holiday observed at the end of the Ramadan fast), as well as Kurban, or Eid ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Shaybani Khan and Tomb of Kuchkunji Khan. Plans, Elevations, and Sections
This plan, section and elevation of the Madrasah of Shaybani Khan in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Muhammad Shaybani, subsequently known as Shaybani Khan (1451-1510), was a descendant of Genghis Khan and the founder of the short-lived Shaybanid Uzbek dynasty. In ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Plan, Elevation, and Sections
These drawings of the first and second story plans, sections, and front elevation of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Plan, Elevation, and Sections
This plan, elevation and sections of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Chupan-Ata and Bridges of Shadman Malik and Char Minar. Plans, Elevations, and Sections
These plans, sections and elevations of the Chupan-Ata mausoleum and other structures in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. At the top of the plans are an elevation and section of the mid-15th century Chupan-Ata mausoleum (mazar), with plans of the ground ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Sections and Elevations
This plan of the tomb of Kusam-ibn-Abbas in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Among the accomplishments of this period is a collection ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Plan of the General Arrangement of Sections and Elevations
This plan of the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. This lavish edition in six volumes was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, including 14th- and 15th-century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Guri Bibi Khanym. Plan, Elevations, and Sections
This plan, section and elevation of the Bibi Khanym mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. The mausoleum was built at the same time as the nearby ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Plan, Elevation, and Sections
This plan, section, and elevation of the Bibi Khanym Mosque in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s victorious campaign ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Plan, Elevation, and Sections
This plan, section, and elevation of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Design Statement for the Royal Palace of Caserta to their Holy Royal Majesties Carlo, King of the Two Sicilies and of Jerusalem. Infante of Spain, Duke of Parma and of Piacenza, Great Hereditary Prince of Tuscany and of Queen Maria Amalia of Saxony
Luigi Vanvitelli (1700–73) was an Italian architect and engineer, the son of Flemish-born painter Caspar van Wittel. Vanvitelli trained in Rome under the architect Niccolo Salvi, and designed churches and other structures in Rome, and in Ancona, in east-central Italy. He received a commission in 1751 to build a new royal palace at Caserta, just north of Naples for Charles VII, the Bourbon king of Naples and Sicily. Construction of this magnificent building began in 1752. It was one of the largest buildings erected in Europe in the 18th ...
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Antiquities, Volume One (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Sixth Book on Architecture: On Habitations in and outside the Cities
The rediscovery in 1414 of the manuscript of De architectura libri decem (The ten books on architecture) by Vitruvius (circa 80–15 BC), the only treatise on architecture handed down from antiquity, caused a revolution in Renaissance architectural thought. One of the most important architects of the period, known both for his theoretical writings and the buildings he designed, was Sebastiano Serlio (1475–1554) of Bologna. Serlio’s seven books on architecture had a decisive influence on the evolution of the architecture of Venetian villas and palaces. Serlio’s influence ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Original Unpublished Collection of Maps Relating to the Episcopate of Peru; Portraits of Archbishops, Viceroys, and Other Characters of Peru in Color and Gold; City Plans; Tables on Indigenous Languages: The Codex Trujillo del Perú. Volume I
Baltasar Jaime Martínez Compañón (circa 1735–97) was a Spanish-born priest who in 1767 was sent by King Charles III to serve in the Viceroyalty of Peru, initially as choirmaster of Lima Cathedral. He was named bishop of Trujillo in 1778. He remained in Peru until 1791, when he was appointed archbishop of Bogotá. Known for founding towns, building schools, and his efforts to educate the Indians of Trujillo, Martínez Compañón also was responsible for the Codex Trujillo del Perú, a nine-volume compilation of more than 1,400 illustrations and ...