54 results in English
Decorative Archway Gate (Pailou) in the Xiang Shan Hunting Park, Beijing, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
The Arch of Peace, Milan, Italy
This photochrome print of the Arch of Peace (Arco della Pace) in Milan is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Italy” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This 23-meter marble structure stands in the Piazza Sempione, at one end of the Simplon Road, the strategic route through the Alps taken by Napoleon I when he invaded northern Italy in 1800. Napoleon later commissioned the arch to commemorate his victories. Construction began in 1806 under the direction of the architect Luigi Cagnola (1762–1833), but ...
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Verdun, Road to Y.M.C.A. Canteen
On February 21, 1916, Germany launched its attack on the French fortress city of Verdun, beginning what was to be one of the longest and bloodiest battles of World War I. The French defenders at first fell back and by February 25 the Germans had captured the outer fortress of Douaumont. By June 6 they had taken another fort, at Vaux, but they never managed to take Verdun. The fighting finally ended in stalemate in December of that year. The official French history of the war set total French casualties ...
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Exit from the Yard of the Church of Saint George. Riurik Fortress. Staraia Ladoga, Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Saint Mark's Cathedral, Venice
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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On the Island of Capri
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Entrance into Trinity Cathedral in the Solovetskii Monastery. Solovetski Islands
The Murmansk Railroad was built by the Russian government during World War I to connect Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) to the ice-free port of Romanov-on-Murman (now Murmansk). Construction lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917 when the line was completed. Near the route was the Transfiguration Monastery, located on Great Solovetskii Island. Seen here is the main entrance to the monastery, the Holy Gate. The gate structure was built into the western part of the massive walls of the monastery, which were constructed primarily of granite boulders and were built ...
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Entrance in Dabskii Monastery
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Arch before the Entrance to Timotis-Ubanskii Monastery
The Timotesubani Monastery is a Georgian Orthodox shrine located in the Borjomi Gorge near the town of Tsagveri in the region of Samtskhe-Javakheti. This 1912 view shows the overgrown ruins of the arched entrance to the monastery, whose earliest structures may date to the 11th century. The entryway is of interest for its complex design composed of several segments and for its construction in flat local brick of orange-brown color. The early patrons of the monastery patrons are thought to have been the brothers Shalva and Ivane Toreli-Akhaltiskheli, rulers of ...
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Inside the Ruins of Timotis-Ubanskii Monastery
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mosque in Vladikavkaz
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Smolensk. Nikolskii Gates
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tillia Kari from Ulugh Beg. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three major examples of the madrasah (religious school). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, shown here with two stories composed of arcades of pointed arches that frame rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades are profusely decorated with intricate ceramic work in geometric and floral patterns. On the far left is a corner of the ...
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Study in Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The necropolis of Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) was revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. Shown in this photographic detail (what the photographer called an “etude”) is apparently a structure known simply as the Octahedron, in the middle group of mausolea. Ceramic tiles decorate the surface both inside and out. Above the pointed arch are remnants of a floral pattern in faience. Visible through the doorway are red poppies in profuse bloom, which cover the hillside on which the Shah-i Zindah ensemble complex ...
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Mirza Ulugh Beg. Registan. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three examples of the madrasah (religious schools). The oldest component is the Ulugh Beg Madrasah, built in 1417–20 by the scholar King Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur). Shown here is the main facade with the great iwan arch at the entrance. The facade displays remnants of polychrome ceramic ornamentation, including panels of geometric and botanical motifs, and a vertical Perso-Arabic inscription band. The walls also display monumental geometric tile figures, within which are patterns of block ...
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Inside Shir-Dar Mosque. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second madrasah is the Shir-Dar, was built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. Rectangular in plan, the two-story arcaded structure contained scholars’ cells along an interior courtyard. This view shows the northwest corner of the yard, with a ribbed dome over an instruction hall. Despite losses in this active seismic zone, the surface displays profuse ceramic decoration that includes geometric and botanical motifs, as well as a vertical Perso-Arabic inscription band. Visible ...
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Tillia Kari from Registan Square. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades still show intricate ceramic decoration in geometric and botanical motifs, as well as panels with Perso-Arabic inscriptions above the door of each cell. The corner minaret displays geometric tile patterns with block Kufic ...
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View of Samarkand from Tillia Kari
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. This view, taken from the two-story main facade, looks in the opposite direction from the square toward the adobe houses in the city. On the left is one of the four iwan arches that define the main axes of ...
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Detail of Ulugh Beg (to the Right of the Entrance). Samarkand
At the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major madrasahs (religious schools). The oldest madrasah on Registan Square is named after the astronomer king Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur), who built it in 1417–20. During his reign some 100 students attended this center of Islamic education. Seen here is the upper part of the interior courtyard facade to the left of the main entrance arch. The courtyard was enclosed with two levels of recessed, arched bays that contained rooms for scholars. This view ...
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On the Registan. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second of these, the Shir-Dar Madrasah, was built in 1619–36. This view from Registan Square shows a group of turbaned mullahs and youths on the steps in front of the main facade, which contains the great iwan arch. (The left flank of the arch is brightly lit.) In the center is a large niche containing a partially blocked lattice window, with decorative panels containing floral and geometric figures on either side. Above the ...
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Main Entrance into Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. This photograph shows the complex’s darvozakhana (main entrance), with a chartak (entrance chamber) and a mosque (on left) built in 1434–35 at the base of the hill at the beginning of the necropolis passageway. The large peshtak (entrance arch) frames the chartak portal that is framed in its own pointed arch. Near the ...
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Niche in Back Wall of Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Shown here is the main peshtak (facade arch) of a mausoleum built in 1361 adjacent to the Kusam-ibn-Abbas shrine. Although its patron has not been identified, it was apparently intended for a prominent noblewoman. In addition to ceramic mosaics, the mausoleum has glazed carved terra-cotta columns and panels with intricate floral, geometric, and inscriptional designs ...
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Passage of the Dead. Detail above Entrance. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Its numerous burial shrines and related buildings are said to date from the 11th to the 19th centuries. The caption of this photograph is unclear. The remains of a wall and attached column seen here seem to be located on the outer, west side of the necropolis near the third, northernmost chartak (entrance chamber) in ...
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Mosaics on the Shah-i Zindah Walls. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Shown here is the facade of the peshtak (entrance arch) of the Shirin Bika Aga Mausoleum, built in 1385—86 for the younger sister of Timur (Tamerlane). Despite significant damage, the surface displays profuse ceramic ornamentation with Persian influence, including early examples of composite mosaics. Above the portal is an inscriptional panel in Thuluth cursive ...
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Mosaics on the Shah-i Zindah Walls. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Shown here is the facade within the portal arch of the Tuman-Aka khanaka, built in 1405 near the Kusam-ibn-Abbas shrine as part of a memorial to the youngest wife of Timur (Tamerlane). The facade is distinguished by lively ceramic ornamentation with interlocking geometric patterns. At the center is a ten-pointed radiating star motif in faience ...
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Mosaics on the Shah-i Zindah Walls. Samarkand
Among the greatest examples of Islamic art in Samarkand is the Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") complex. The shrine was begun by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1403 in memory of his grandson Muhammad Sultan. Following Timur's own death in 1405, his body was placed in the structure, which became the Timurid Mausoleum. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. Shown here is a facade detail within the arch of the main entrance structure. The rich polychrome ceramic work in a Persian style includes geometric ...
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Above Main Entrance to Bibi-Khanym. Samarkand
The enormous Bibi Khanym complex in Samarkand was built in 1399–1405 with the spoils of Timur’s (Tamerlane’s) campaign in India. Bibi Khanym was named in homage to Timur’s senior wife, Sarai Mulk Khanym. The rectangular courtyard of the complex centers on the Main, or Friday, Mosque. This view of the central entrance, set within the iwan (entrance arch) of the mosque, shows the effects of extensive damage, particularly after an 1897 earthquake, but much of the ceramic ornamentation remains, including cursive Perso-Arabic inscription bands and panels ...
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Example of Mosaics on the Walls in the Home of a Wealthy Sart. On the Outskirts of Samarkand
According to the caption, this decorated interior is in a suburban house belonging to a wealthy Sart. In the late 19th century the term “Sart” referred not only to town dwellers, but also to the inhabitants of this area from before the coming of Uzbek tribes in the 16th century. The lavish decorative work displays floral bouquets, as well as botanical motifs and astral patterns formed by a complex system of intersecting lines. The owner of such a richly decorated house presumably belonged to a member of the local elite ...
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Emir Shir-Budun's Palace in a Country Grove. Bukhara
Between 1785 and 1920, eight emirs of the Manghit dynasty ruled Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan). After the Russian occupation of Samarkand (1868), the Emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate. The last emir of Bukhara was Said Mir Mohammed Alim Khan. The small palace seen here is the emir’s suburban residence at Shir-Budun near Bukhara. The facade reflects a crude 19th-century attempt to apply loudly painted decorative motifs to a structure influenced by European design. The European influence is particularly noticeable in the window forms. Only the thin corner ...
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Entrance into the Emir's Palace in Old Bukhara
Between 1785 and 1920, eight emirs of the Manghit dynasty ruled Buhkara (in present-day Uzbekistan). After the Russian occupation of Samarkand (1868), the Emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate. Seen in this bright winter view is the main entrance to the citadel, or Ark, the oldest archeological site in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan), with layers going back at least to the sixth century. The Ark in its present form originated in the 16th century under the Sheibanid dynasty, which reconstructed the platform on the ruins of earlier citadels. In the ...
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Drawings on Tiles above Gates into the Tsar's Tomb. Bogoeddin. Bukhara
Shown here are ceramic panels above the entrance to the tomb of Sheikh Bakhauddin Nakshbandi (1318–89), venerated sage and leader of the Sufi Nakshbandi order. In 1544 Bakhauddin’s burial site at Baha al-Din, near Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan), was enshrined within a large khanaka (memorial structure) built by the Sheibanid ruler Abd al-Aziz khan. Although much damaged over the centuries, the facade retained fragments of exquisite ceramic work, including glazed carved terra-cotta tiles (at top) with intricate floral motifs. Above the pointed arch of the portal are faience ...
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Wall Painting in a Niche in Bogoeddin. Bukhara
This photograph was taken at the complex containing the tomb of Sheikh Bakhauddin Nakshbandi (1318–89), a venerated sage of the Sufi Nakshbandi order. In 1544 Bakhauddin’s burial site at Baha al-Din, near Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan), was enshrined in a large khanaka (memorial structure). Shown here is an arched segment in the exterior wall of the khanaka. The pointed arch in the lower part culminates in a miniature vault in the mocárabe, or “stalactite,” form. This inner niche is contained within a larger arch, whose stalactite vault is ...
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Duan-Beggi Medrese (in Labikhauz). Bukhara
The Astrakhanid dynasty in Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) during the 17th century was adept in its organization of urban space. One example is the Lab-i-Hauz complex, a trading area containing a square reservoir that provided water and served as a reflecting pool for three buildings. Among them is the khanaka, or hostel for pilgrims and travelers, built in 1619–20 by Nadir Divan-Begi, a vizier (high official) and uncle of the Bukhara ruler Imam Kuli Khan. (The madrasah mentioned in the caption is in fact an adjacent structure.) Although severely ...
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Detail of Left Side of Duan-Beggi Madrasah. Bukhara
The Astrakhanid dynasty in Bukhara during the 17th century was adept at organizing urban space. The Liabi-Khauz complex is a fine example. It was a trading area with a square reservoir that provided water and served as a reflecting pool for three adjacent religious buildings. Among them is the madrasah (religious school) built in 1622–23 by Nadir Divan-begi, a vizier (high official) and uncle of the Bukhara ruler Iman Kuli-Khan. This photograph shows part of the facade, with recessed, arched bays that contained rooms for scholars. The adobe walls ...
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Above Entrance to Gauk Man Medrese. Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Kush-Medrese. Outer Entrance. Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kush-Medrese (Interior from the Right Side). Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mosaics on Walls in Old Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Iconstasis in the Assumption Cathedral (800 Years) in Staritsa Monastery
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Entrance into the Staritsa Assumption Monastery
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Iconostasis of the Tikhvin Mother of God Church. Torzhok
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Entrance into the Church of Saint John the Precursor, from the Gallery (Church Porch). Yaroslavl
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress