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Decorative Archway Gate (Pailou) in the Xiang Shan Hunting Park, Beijing, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
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National Library of Brazil
The Arch of Peace, Milan, Italy
This photochrome print of the Arch of Peace (Arco della Pace) in Milan is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Italy” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This 23-meter marble structure stands in the Piazza Sempione, at one end of the Simplon Road, the strategic route through the Alps taken by Napoleon I when he invaded northern Italy in 1800. Napoleon later commissioned the arch to commemorate his victories. Construction began in 1806 under the direction of the architect Luigi Cagnola (1762–1833), but ...
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Library of Congress
Verdun, Road to Y.M.C.A. Canteen
On February 21, 1916, Germany launched its attack on the French fortress city of Verdun, beginning what was to be one of the longest and bloodiest battles of World War I. The French defenders at first fell back and by February 25 the Germans had captured the outer fortress of Douaumont. By June 6 they had taken another fort, at Vaux, but they never managed to take Verdun. The fighting finally ended in stalemate in December of that year. The official French history of the war set total French casualties ...
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Library of Congress
Exit from the Yard of the Church of Saint George. Riurik Fortress. Staraia Ladoga, Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
Saint Mark's Cathedral, Venice
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
On the Island of Capri
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
Entrance into Trinity Cathedral in the Solovetskii Monastery. Solovetski Islands
The Murmansk Railroad was built by the Russian government during World War I to connect Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) to the ice-free port of Romanov-on-Murman (now Murmansk). Construction lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917 when the line was completed. Near the route was the Transfiguration Monastery, located on Great Solovetskii Island. Seen here is the main entrance to the monastery, the Holy Gate. The gate structure was built into the western part of the massive walls of the monastery, which were constructed primarily of granite boulders and were built ...
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Library of Congress
Entrance in Dabskii Monastery
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
Arch before the Entrance to Timotis-Ubanskii Monastery
The Timotesubani Monastery is a Georgian Orthodox shrine located in the Borjomi Gorge near the town of Tsagveri in the region of Samtskhe-Javakheti. This 1912 view shows the overgrown ruins of the arched entrance to the monastery, whose earliest structures may date to the 11th century. The entryway is of interest for its complex design composed of several segments and for its construction in flat local brick of orange-brown color. The early patrons of the monastery patrons are thought to have been the brothers Shalva and Ivane Toreli-Akhaltiskheli, rulers of ...
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Library of Congress
Inside the Ruins of Timotis-Ubanskii Monastery
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
Mosque in Vladikavkaz
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
Smolensk. Nikolskii Gates
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Library of Congress
Tillia Kari from Ulugh Beg. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three major examples of the madrasah (religious school). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, shown here with two stories composed of arcades of pointed arches that frame rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades are profusely decorated with intricate ceramic work in geometric and floral patterns. On the far left is a corner of the ...
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Library of Congress
Study in Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The necropolis of Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) was revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. Shown in this photographic detail (what the photographer called an “etude”) is apparently a structure known simply as the Octahedron, in the middle group of mausolea. Ceramic tiles decorate the surface both inside and out. Above the pointed arch are remnants of a floral pattern in faience. Visible through the doorway are red poppies in profuse bloom, which cover the hillside on which the Shah-i Zindah ensemble complex ...
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Library of Congress
Mirza Ulugh Beg. Registan. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three examples of the madrasah (religious schools). The oldest component is the Ulugh Beg Madrasah, built in 1417–20 by the scholar King Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur). Shown here is the main facade with the great iwan arch at the entrance. The facade displays remnants of polychrome ceramic ornamentation, including panels of geometric and botanical motifs, and a vertical Perso-Arabic inscription band. The walls also display monumental geometric tile figures, within which are patterns of block ...
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Library of Congress
Inside Shir-Dar Mosque. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second madrasah is the Shir-Dar, was built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. Rectangular in plan, the two-story arcaded structure contained scholars’ cells along an interior courtyard. This view shows the northwest corner of the yard, with a ribbed dome over an instruction hall. Despite losses in this active seismic zone, the surface displays profuse ceramic decoration that includes geometric and botanical motifs, as well as a vertical Perso-Arabic inscription band. Visible ...
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Library of Congress
Tillia Kari from Registan Square. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades still show intricate ceramic decoration in geometric and botanical motifs, as well as panels with Perso-Arabic inscriptions above the door of each cell. The corner minaret displays geometric tile patterns with block Kufic ...
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Library of Congress
View of Samarkand from Tillia Kari
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. This view, taken from the two-story main facade, looks in the opposite direction from the square toward the adobe houses in the city. On the left is one of the four iwan arches that define the main axes of ...
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Library of Congress
Detail of Ulugh Beg (to the Right of the Entrance). Samarkand
At the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major madrasahs (religious schools). The oldest madrasah on Registan Square is named after the astronomer king Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur), who built it in 1417–20. During his reign some 100 students attended this center of Islamic education. Seen here is the upper part of the interior courtyard facade to the left of the main entrance arch. The courtyard was enclosed with two levels of recessed, arched bays that contained rooms for scholars. This view ...
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Library of Congress
On the Registan. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second of these, the Shir-Dar Madrasah, was built in 1619–36. This view from Registan Square shows a group of turbaned mullahs and youths on the steps in front of the main facade, which contains the great iwan arch. (The left flank of the arch is brightly lit.) In the center is a large niche containing a partially blocked lattice window, with decorative panels containing floral and geometric figures on either side. Above the ...
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Library of Congress
Main Entrance into Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. This photograph shows the complex’s darvozakhana (main entrance), with a chartak (entrance chamber) and a mosque (on left) built in 1434–35 at the base of the hill at the beginning of the necropolis passageway. The large peshtak (entrance arch) frames the chartak portal that is framed in its own pointed arch. Near the ...
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Library of Congress