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April 8, 2014

Countries of the Ottoman Emperor in Asia, Persia, Uzbek Territory, Arabia, and Egypt

Countries of the Ottoman Emperor in Asia, Persia, Uzbek Territory, Arabia, and Egypt

This 1740s map shows the possessions of the Ottoman Empire in Asia (including present-day Turkey, Iraq, and the Levant), the Persian Empire (shown to include present-day Iran, Afghanistan, much of Pakistan, and the Caucasus), the country of the Uzbeks, Arabia, and Egypt. The boundaries of these territories are hand colored on this copy. The desert to the south and west of present-day Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates is described as “without water and without habitation.” The pearl-diving region of the southern Persian Gulf is indicated by shading and dots. In the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula are two noteworthy Biblical references: one to Moab, another to the Queen of Sheba. Also shown is the Red Sea town of Moka, a major exporter of coffee and the origin of the word “mocha.” The map is by Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1688−1766), an important French cartographer who inherited the cartographic materials of the mapmaker Nicolas Sanson and his sons and who published atlases in 1748 and 1752.

Map of Western Asia, Circa 1918−20

Map of Western Asia, Circa 1918−20

This map of western Asia produced by the American Geographical Society (AGS) of New York dates from the period immediately after World War I. A similar map in the collection of the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is thought to have been made by the AGS for the use of the American delegation to the peace negotiations in Versailles in 1918−19. The map shows Turkey, the Arabian Peninsula, Persia (present-day Iran), and Afghanistan. Iraq is still shown as part of Turkey (the Ottoman Empire). The League of Nations mandates for Syria, Iraq, and Palestine, adopted at the peace conference, are not yet shown. Qatar is indicated as El Katr; Doha and Wakrah are shown as Dohah and Wakra. India (i.e., British India) includes present-day Pakistan. The Soviet Union, with its constituent republics in Central Asia (Russian Turkistan), has not yet been formed. The map has three scales: miles, kilometers, and Russian versts.

The Empire of Alexander the Great and his Campaigns in Europe, Africa, and Particularly in Asia

The Empire of Alexander the Great and his Campaigns in Europe, Africa, and Particularly in Asia

This map, published in Paris in 1712, shows the expeditions and empire of Alexander the Great (356–323 BC), in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The circular inset at the top shows the three continents. The numbered notes in the lower right refer to Alexander’s campaign on the banks of the Hyphasis River (now known as the Beas River) in northern India, which is shown on the far-right side of the map. The long note in Latin in the upper right-hand corner summarizes Alexander’s career and conquests, which are explained with reference to Biblical sources, in particular the prophecies in the Book of Daniel, and the Antiquitates Judaicae (The Jewish antiquities) by the first-century historian Flavius Josephus. Borders are annotated in colored ink, and three distance scales are given: 1,000 paces (also known as Roman miles), Greek stadia (one stadia is circa 185−225 meters), and Persian parasangs (a measure of length variously given as between 3.9 and 5.3 kilometers). The map is by Pierre Moulart-Sanson (died 1730), a member of the prominent family of cartographers founded by Nicolas Sanson (1600−67).

Part I of the Map of Asia: Including Turkey, Arabia, Persia, India below the Ganges River, and Tartary, which Borders Persia and India

Part I of the Map of Asia: Including Turkey, Arabia, Persia, India below the Ganges River, and Tartary, which Borders Persia and India

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782) was an important French cartographer known for his scrupulous attention to detail and his commitment to accuracy. His method was to collect and compare as many sources of geographic information as possible and to correct and reissue maps as new information became available. His own personal collection of maps eventually totaled nearly 9,000 items. This map of 1751 by d’Anville shows the part of Asia from its border with Africa and Europe in the west to most of the Indian subcontinent and Tibet in the east. Brief notes describe parts of the Arabian Peninsula as “very dry” and “covered with sand.” Qatar is listed as Catura. Kandahar, Kabul, and Herat are shown, and a garbled version of the name Afghanistan—“Agvanistan”—appears. Borders on this copy are indicated by hand-drawn lines in colored ink. No fewer than 12 different scales of distance are provided, a testament to d’Anville’s commitment to detail and the lack of standardization at the time.

Ethnic and Language Map of the Near East

Ethnic and Language Map of the Near East

This map, produced in 1943 by the Geographic Service of the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office) of Germany, shows the ethnic, linguistic, and religious makeup of the Middle East. Included are the Caucasus and other parts of the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and parts of present-day Pakistan and India. The map and the explanatory text reflect the Nazi-era obsession with race and ethnicity. The long note at the top of the key states that the map "endeavors to show the Lebensraum [living space] of those oriental peoples located in Europe’s area of interest." It notes that the region is for the most part dry and lightly populated; most of its peoples are settled, but that nomadism persists in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula and in parts of Central Asia. Colors are used to indicate the different ethnic and linguistic groups, which are divided into broad Indo-Germanic (Indo-European) and Turkic categories, the former indicated by the blue-toned, the latter by the red-toned colors. Religious affiliations are shown using the symbols identified at the bottom of the key. The inset map in the lower right shows population densities, which range from 0.1 percent per square kilometer to 50 per square kilometer.

Map of the Near East

Map of the Near East

German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1855 map of the Near East, which appeared in the Kiepert’s Neuer Hand-Atlas über alle Teile der Erde (Kiepert’s new portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by Dietrich Reimer, with whom Kiepert had a long association. The map covers the region between the eastern Mediterranean and the border of Afghanistan with British India. Different colors are used to mark the borders of the Ottoman and Russian empires, British possessions and protectorates in India, and the territory of the imam of Maskat (present-day Muscat). In the lower left-hand corner is a list of topographic terms in Turkish, Arabic, and Persian with their German equivalents.

Map of the Middle East

Map of the Middle East

This map of the Middle East was made by the Führungsstab der Luftwaffe (the operations staff of the German air force) in 1943. The map is labeled “Secret.” Covering the region from the eastern Mediterranean to the border of Afghanistan with British India (present-day Pakistan), it shows the locations of first- and second-class air bases, operational bases, landing strips, and airfields under construction, as of March 15, 1943. Six inset maps—of Aden, Mosul, Cyprus, Baghdad, Gaza-Haifa, and Damascus-Aleppo—provide additional detail about locations with more well-developed aviation infrastructure. Railroad lines and oil pipelines are also shown.

Marittima Italiana: Bombay Line

Marittima Italiana: Bombay Line

Marittima Italiana was an Italian shipping company, established in 1936 as an offshoot of the long-established firm of Lloyd-Triestino, which in the late 1930s operated shipping lines between Italy and east Africa, southern Africa, Asia, and Australia. Shown here is a map of Marittima Italiana’s line from Genoa to Bombay (Mumbai), India. Distances are given for the different sections of the route: from Genoa to Naples, Naples to Port Said, Port Said to Aden, and Aden to Bombay. Inset maps show these five ports and the Suez Canal, with water depths given in meters. Symbols are used to indicate radiotelegraph stations and the availability of coal, fuel oil, and dry-dock facilities at various ports. The clock in the center of the map shows the division of the world into 24 time zones.

Arabia, the Red Sea and Persian Gulf

Arabia, the Red Sea and Persian Gulf

This map of the Arabian Peninsula shows international borders, caravan routes, and important cities and towns. British possessions, including the port of Aden and the island of Socotra (ʻAdan and Suquṭrā, both part of present-day Yemen), are indicated by the pink coloring. The old Qatari cities of El Bedaa and Zabara (present-day Al Bida and Al Zabara) are shown. The map appeared as plate 48 in The Imperial Atlas of Modern Geography, published by the Glasgow firm of Blackie & Son in 1859 and reissued in 1860. Founded in 1809 by the Scot John Blackie (1782−1874), by the mid-19th century this firm was an important publisher of illustrated reference works, including The Imperial Gazetteer (1855), The Imperial Atlas of Modern Geography, and The Imperial Bible Dictionary (1866). The map was drawn and engraved by Edward Weller (1819−84), a London-based cartographer and engraver who was the unofficial geographer of the Royal Geographical Society in London. The atlas was compiled under the direction of Walter Graham Blackie (1816−1906), the youngest son of John Blackie.

Recommended Facilities for Search and Rescue, Middle East Region

Recommended Facilities for Search and Rescue, Middle East Region

This map was prepared for the Middle East Region Air Navigation Meeting of the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO), which took place in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1946. It shows political borders and recommended facilities for search and rescue, including rescue-coordinating and rescue-alerting centers, bases for different types of search-and-rescue aircraft, and facilities for surface vessels. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was established under a convention signed by 52 countries at the November 1944 International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago. From August 1945 to August 1947, as the Chicago convention was being ratified, PICAO began work on the rules, regulations, and technical standards for the postwar civil aviation system. The work of PICAO, and later of ICAO, was organized on a regional basis. The Middle East Region, as demarcated on this map, ran from Benghazi, Libya, in the west to the western coast of India in the east, and included Sudan and the Horn of Africa, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, and a part of Greece.

Airlines of the Eastern Mediterranean and Adjacent Areas: As of October, 1947

Airlines of the Eastern Mediterranean and Adjacent Areas: As of October, 1947

This map of airline routes in the Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent areas was compiled and drawn by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency for the Department of State, based on information supplied by the Foreign Air Transport Division of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board. It presumably was for use by diplomats at the newly established International Civil Aviation Organization. Some of the airlines whose routes are shown exist to the present day; others have merged, gone bankrupt, or changed their names. Athens, Cairo, Lydda (Lod in present-day Israel; until 1948 British Royal Air Force Station Lydda), Beirut, and Baghdad are shown as important air-transport hubs. Noteworthy for this early period is the internal network established by Ethiopian Air Lines, with links from Addis Ababa to Gondar, Debra Marcos, Gimma (present-day Gonder, Debre Mark’os, and Jīma), and other towns and cities, as well as the airline’s international flights to Nairobi, Cairo, Aden, and Asmara. Aircraft of this era had limited ranges, and flights from, for example, the United Kingdom to Australia or the Netherlands to the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) are shown as stopping to refuel at locations in the Middle East, including Dhahran (Saudi Arabia), Bahrein, and Sharja (United Arab Emirates).

Middle East Air Traffic Control Scheme

Middle East Air Traffic Control Scheme

This map, produced in 1946 by the Survey of Egypt, shows a scheme for air traffic control in the Middle East. The International Convention on Civil Aviation, adopted by 52 countries in 1944, provided for the establishment of an international air-traffic control system aimed at preventing aircraft collisions. The world’s airspace was to be divided into contiguous regions, within each of which all traffic would be controlled by a designated air-traffic control authority. On longer flights, aircraft are passed by radio from the control of one region to another. These regions, which later came to be known as Flight Information Regions (FIRs), are regulated by the Montreal-based International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This map shows the Middle East divided into six regions, centered on Cairo (Egypt), Khartoum (Sudan), Basra (Iraq), Aden (Yemen), Karachi (Pakistan), and Bangalore (India).

Maps of the Middle East and the Near East

Maps of the Middle East and the Near East

Shown here is a large folding map produced by the General Staff of the German Army during World War II. Notes on the map indicate that it was solely for use within the army and that reproduction was prohibited. One side is a large map of the region stretching from the Balkan Peninsula to the eastern part of Iran. Shown are towns and cities by population size, international borders, the borders of republics and provinces within the Soviet Union, major and secondary roads, roads under construction, oil pipelines, mountain passes, heights in meters, and bodies of water. The key on the right gives the German equivalents of common geographic expressions in Arabic, Persian, Russian, and Turkish; in the lower right is a pronunciation key for Turkish letters. The reverse side contains a large map entitled Der vordere Orient (The Near East), showing the region from Egypt to eastern Afghanistan. The table at the bottom lists all the territories of the region and their geographic size and population, grouped by category: independent states and British, French, Italian, and Portuguese possessions. Also on this side are a map of the entire Mediterranean Sea from the Straits of Gibraltar to the Levant; and two inset maps, one of Cyprus and another of the islands of Rhodes and the Dodecanese (in present-day Greece but at that time under Italian control).

The Expeditions of Alexander: Made for “Histoire Ancienne” by Mr. Rollin

The Expeditions of Alexander: Made for “Histoire Ancienne” by Mr. Rollin

This map shows the expeditions of Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) from the Hellespont, the strait (later called the Dardanelles) that separates Europe from Asia in present-day Turkey, through Turkey, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), Persia (Iran), and Afghanistan. Alexander reached as far as the banks of the Hyphasis River (now known as the Beas River) in northern India, where the conqueror’s exhausted armies finally mutinied. Shown are cities that Alexander founded and named “Alexandria” in honor of himself. Two distance scales are given, the ancient measure of stadia, and contemporary leagues. The map is by the French cartographer and geographer Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782) and, as indicated in the title, was made to illustrate Histoire Ancienne (Ancient history) by Charles Rollin (1661–1741). D’Anville was one of the most important mapmakers of the 18th century, known for the accuracy and scientific quality of his maps. Rollin was a professor of rhetoric and university official who wrote his major works in retirement, including Histoire Ancienne, a 12-volume history that appeared between 1730 and 1738.

Vessel-Sighting Mechanism Details

Vessel-Sighting Mechanism Details

The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance his submarine research. The Library of Congress has in its collections a 71-page manuscript, signed by Fulton and dated August 10, 1806, entitled “On Submarine Navigation and Attack.”  This document includes an introduction and detailed descriptions of 16 pen-and-wash drawings, also by Fulton, that accompany the text. Shown here is one of the drawings, which were numbered and signed by Fulton. Together, they touch upon almost every aspect of Fulton’s work in the fields of submarine and surface naval warfare. Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. After working as a painter of miniature portraits and landscapes, in 1786 he went to London to study mechanical engineering. His other inventions include a machine for spinning flax, a dredging machine, and the torpedo.

Submarine Vessel, Longitudinal Section

Submarine Vessel, Longitudinal Section

The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance his submarine research. The Library of Congress has in its collections a 71-page manuscript, signed by Fulton and dated August 10, 1806, entitled “On Submarine Navigation and Attack.”  This document includes an introduction and detailed descriptions of 16 pen-and-wash drawings, also by Fulton, that accompany the text. Shown here is one of the drawings, which were numbered and signed by Fulton. Together, they touch upon almost every aspect of Fulton’s work in the fields of submarine and surface naval warfare. Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. After working as a painter of miniature portraits and landscapes, in 1786 he went to London to study mechanical engineering. His other inventions include a machine for spinning flax, a dredging machine, and the torpedo.

Vessel under Sail and Anchored

Vessel under Sail and Anchored

The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance his submarine research. The Library of Congress has in its collections a 71-page manuscript, signed by Fulton and dated August 10, 1806, entitled “On Submarine Navigation and Attack.”  This document includes an introduction and detailed descriptions of 16 pen-and-wash drawings, also by Fulton, that accompany the text. Shown here is one of the drawings, which were numbered and signed by Fulton. Together, they touch upon almost every aspect of Fulton’s work in the fields of submarine and surface naval warfare. Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. After working as a painter of miniature portraits and landscapes, in 1786 he went to London to study mechanical engineering. His other inventions include a machine for spinning flax, a dredging machine, and the torpedo.

Water Chambers, Valves, Water Passages

Water Chambers, Valves, Water Passages

The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance his submarine research. The Library of Congress has in its collections a 71-page manuscript, signed by Fulton and dated August 10, 1806, entitled “On Submarine Navigation and Attack.”  This document includes an introduction and detailed descriptions of 16 pen-and-wash drawings, also by Fulton, that accompany the text. Shown here is one of the drawings, which were numbered and signed by Fulton. Together, they touch upon almost every aspect of Fulton’s work in the fields of submarine and surface naval warfare. Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. After working as a painter of miniature portraits and landscapes, in 1786 he went to London to study mechanical engineering. His other inventions include a machine for spinning flax, a dredging machine, and the torpedo.

Pumps, Cocks, Water Chamber, and Anchor for “Plunging Boat”

Pumps, Cocks, Water Chamber, and Anchor for “Plunging Boat”

The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance his submarine research. The Library of Congress has in its collections a 71-page manuscript, signed by Fulton and dated August 10, 1806, entitled “On Submarine Navigation and Attack.”  This document includes an introduction and detailed descriptions of 16 pen-and-wash drawings, also by Fulton, that accompany the text. Shown here is one of the drawings, which were numbered and signed by Fulton. Together, they touch upon almost every aspect of Fulton’s work in the fields of submarine and surface naval warfare. Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. After working as a painter of miniature portraits and landscapes, in 1786 he went to London to study mechanical engineering. His other inventions include a machine for spinning flax, a dredging machine, and the torpedo.

Cock Cavity and Wheel Details for “Plunging Boat”

Cock Cavity and Wheel Details for “Plunging Boat”

The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance his submarine research. The Library of Congress has in its collections a 71-page manuscript, signed by Fulton and dated August 10, 1806, entitled “On Submarine Navigation and Attack.”  This document includes an introduction and detailed descriptions of 16 pen-and-wash drawings, also by Fulton, that accompany the text. Shown here is one of the drawings, which were numbered and signed by Fulton. Together, they touch upon almost every aspect of Fulton’s work in the fields of submarine and surface naval warfare. Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. After working as a painter of miniature portraits and landscapes, in 1786 he went to London to study mechanical engineering. His other inventions include a machine for spinning flax, a dredging machine, and the torpedo.

Map of the Arabian Coast, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf

Map of the Arabian Coast, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf

This map of the coastlines of the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent regions is by the French hydrographer and cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703−72). Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office for more than 50 years and specialized in producing maritime maps. He also made most of the maps for Histoire générale des voyages: ou, Nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre, qui ont été publiées jusqu'à présent dans les différentes langues de toutes les nations connues (General history of the voyages, or, a new collection of all the accounts of voyages on sea and on land, which have been published up to the present in the different languages of all known countries), a 15-volume compendium edited by Abbé Antoine-François Prévost (1697–1763) and published between 1746 and 1759. This map appeared in the first volume of this work. The map shows coastlines, ports, and coastal shoals. At a time when the determination of location was still an inexact science, a note at upper right explains the use of three different symbols on the map: a star to indicate places where location had been determined by astronomical observations of latitude and longitude; a cross to indicate places where location had been determined by astronomical observations of (only) latitude; and a modified cross to indicate places where location had been determined by latitudinal observations made by skilled navigators.

Submarine Vessel, Transverse Section

Submarine Vessel, Transverse Section

The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance his submarine research. The Library of Congress has in its collections a 71-page manuscript, signed by Fulton and dated August 10, 1806, entitled “On Submarine Navigation and Attack.”  This document includes an introduction and detailed descriptions of 16 pen-and-wash drawings, also by Fulton, that accompany the text. Shown here is one of the drawings, which were numbered and signed by Fulton. Together, they touch upon almost every aspect of Fulton’s work in the fields of submarine and surface naval warfare. Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. After working as a painter of miniature portraits and landscapes, in 1786 he went to London to study mechanical engineering. His other inventions include a machine for spinning flax, a dredging machine, and the torpedo.

Newest Map of Arabia

Newest Map of Arabia

This color map in German appeared as plate 80 in Grosser Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde (Large portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by the Bibliographic Institute of Joseph Meyer (1796−1856). The map shows the Arabian Peninsula as well as neighboring parts of Africa, including Egypt, present-day Sudan, and Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia). Colored lines are used to demarcate kingdoms and other political entities. El Bedaa, an old city in Qatar (now the Al Bida area of Doha), is shown. Three inset maps in the upper right hand corner show the cities of El Derreyeh (Ad Dir‘īyah), Mekka (Mecca), and Medina. An unusual feature of the map is the large number of distance scales provided, which reflects both the thoroughness of the mapmaker and the lack of international standardization at the time. They include geographic miles, English miles, French leagues, Dutch miles, Spanish leagues, Portuguese leagues, Italian miles, Danish miles, Swedish miles, Russian versts, Greek miles, and nautical miles. Meyer was a successful German businessman who founded the Bibliographic Institute as a publishing house in 1826. The firm specialized in producing low-cost editions of the classics, atlases, encyclopedias, and other books for purchase by the general public.

Arabia

Arabia

This map of the Arabian Peninsula appeared in the 1856 edition of the world atlas that was first published by James Wyld (1790−1836) in 1824 and in successive editions by his son, James Wyld the younger (1812−87). Political divisions are indicated by colored lines and the scale is in English miles. Cities, towns, wells, and caravan routes to Mecca are shown. An annotation on the map reflects the limited state of European knowledge about geography of parts of the peninsula: “The interior of Arabia is probably a high plain inclining towards the Persian Gulf; a great proportion of it is occupied by extensive Deserts, occasionally seperated [sic] by small mountainous Oases.” After studying at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, James Wyld the younger joined his father’s mapmaking and publishing firm, which he eventually inherited. Wyld published numerous maps, many of which were intended to satisfy public interest in current events, such as the First Anglo-Afghan War, the California Gold Rush, and the Crimean War. Wyld’s maps were of high quality, and he was appointed geographer to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

Northeast Africa and Arabia Drawn to the Scale of 1:12,500,000

Northeast Africa and Arabia Drawn to the Scale of 1:12,500,000

This map of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula is from the sixth edition (1875) of Stieler's Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde (Stieler’s portable atlas of all parts of the Earth), edited by August Heinrich Petermann (1822−78) and published by the firm of Justus Perthes. The map reflects the high quality of German cartography in the latter part of the 19th century and the advances made by German mapmakers in incorporating into their work findings from geology, hydrography, ethnography, and other scientific fields. The map uses color codes to show the main political and ethnic divisions in Africa, Arabia, and western Asia. Three distance scales are given: German geographic miles, statute miles, and kilometers. The routes of recent European travelers are shown, including, on the Arabian Peninsula, Palgrave (1862), Pelly (1865), and J. Halévy (1870). Qatar is shown as Katar. In the lower right is a large inset map of Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia) and Egyptian Sudan, the latter referring to territory along the Red Sea in present-day Eritrea and Sudan claimed at that time by Egypt.

Arabia: According To Its Modern Divisions

Arabia: According To Its Modern Divisions

“Arabia According to Its Modern Divisions” shows the Arabian Peninsula with the three-part division traditionally used in European sources into Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. Deserts, seaports, and the pearl beds along the coast are indicated. Qatar is shown as Catura. Four different distance scales—Arabian miles, Turkish miles, Persian parasangs, and British miles—are provided. Published in 1794, the map was compiled and drawn by Samuel Dunn (circa 1723−94), a teacher of mathematics and navigation who made original contributions to solving the problem of determining longitude. In addition to making maps, Dunn wrote a number of books on mathematics and navigation, including The Description and Use of the Universal Planispheres (1759) and The Theory and Practice of the Longitude at Sea (1778). This map was published by the firm of Laurie & Whittle, a partnership of the engraver Robert Laurie (circa 1755−1836) and print seller James Whittle (1757−1818) that was known for its accurate maps and nautical charts.

Arabia

Arabia

John Tallis and Company was a British mapmaking and publishing firm, founded by John Tallis (1817–76), which was active in London circa 1835−60. Tallis maps were known for their accurate information with numerous place-names and geographical details, as well as for the use of shaded areas to indicate topographical features. They are identifiable by the scrolling on the borders and the finely-drawn scenes inscribed on the margins of the maps, which John Tallis and his illustrators derived from travelogues and other written sources. John Rapkin (1815−76) was the principal engraver for the firm, who drew and engraved most Tallis maps. This map of Arabia by Rapkin shows physical features, towns and villages, and caravan routes across the desert, many leading to the holy city of Mecca. The geographic extent of the region defined as Arabia is marked with a red line, and includes not only the Arabian Peninsula but parts of present-day Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. Illustrations in the four corners of the map show a camel beneath a palm tree, Arab women carrying water jars, Mount Sinai, and two Arab men, one on horseback and another on foot. The illustrations were drawn by H. Warren and engraved by John Rogers, who produced numerous steel engravings for Tallis.

A New Map of Arabia: Divided into Its Several Regions and Districts

A New Map of Arabia: Divided into Its Several Regions and Districts

This map of Arabia, published in London in 1794, is an English translation of a map by the French cartographer and geographer Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782). Appointed the first geographer to the king of France in 1773, d’Anville was one of the most important mapmakers of the 18th century, known for the accuracy and scientific quality of his maps. The work presented here is said to contain “Additions and Improvements from Mr. Niebuhr,” a reference to Carsten Niebuhr (1733–1815), a German-born Danish explorer and civil engineer who journeyed through Arabia and Yemen in 1762–67 and whose Travels through Arabia and Other Countries in the East (an abridged translation from the original German) was published in Edinburgh in 1792. The map includes cities and towns, coastlines, caravan routes to Mecca, wells, mines, and other geographic features, and brief notations on some of the peoples and kingdoms of the Arabian Peninsula. Qatar is shown as “Catura,” with the notation “Coast little Known” just south of its location. Four distance scales are given: great Arabian miles, great parasangs or Persian leagues, sea leagues, and British miles. The map was published by the London firm of Laurie & Whittle, a partnership of the engraver Robert Laurie (circa 1755−1836) and print seller James Whittle (1757−1818) that was known for its accurate maps and nautical charts.

Map of the Persian Gulf

Map of the Persian Gulf

This map of the Persian Gulf is by the French cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703−72). Qatar is shown as Catura. Cities on both the Arabian and Persian sides of the gulf are indicated, and the map shows a river emptying into the gulf at the port of Julfar (present-day Ra's al-Khaymah, United Arab Emirates). The scale is in common leagues, and there are no latitudinal or longitudinal lines. Trained as a hydrographer, Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office and specialized in producing maritime maps showing coastlines. His maps were in the tradition of Nicolas Sanson (1600–1667), the royal geographer to Kings Louis XIII and Louis XIV commonly known as the father of French cartography, and of Guillaume de l'Isle (1675−1726), one of a group of French cartographers that wrested mapmaking preeminence from the Dutch in the late 17th century. Like Sanson and de l’Isle, Bellin placed great emphasis on scientific accuracy rather than on artistic beauty for its own sake. In 1764, he published Le Petit Atlas Maritime: Recueil de Cartes et de Plans des Quatre Parties du Monde (Small maritime atlas: collection of maps and charts of the four parts of the world), a work in five volumes containing 581 maps. This map appeared as plate 8 in volume 3 of this work, containing maps of Asia (part I) and Africa (part II).

Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera

Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera

This map showing the Arabian Peninsula, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (present-day Iran and Pakistan) was published in 1855 by J.H. Colton & Company of New York. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. The old Qatari city of Al Zabara is shown. The map is accompanied by a one-page summary of the geography, people, principal places, and recent history of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. The map later appeared in the 1865 edition of Colton’s General Atlas and reflects the general level of geographic knowledge of the Middle East in mid-19th-century America. J.H. Colton & Company was founded in New York City, most likely in 1831, by Joseph Hutchins Colton (1800–93), a Massachusetts native who had only a basic education and little or no formal training in geography or cartography. Colton built the firm into a major publisher of maps and atlases by purchasing the copyrights to and republishing other maps before it began creating its own maps and atlases. In the 1850s, the firm became the G.W. & C.B. Colton Company, after Colton brought his sons, George Woolworth Colton (1827–1901) and Charles B. Colton (1832–1916), into the business. As in this example, virtually all Colton maps were framed in decorative borders of intertwining vines, flowers, or geometric shapes.