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July 15, 2014

Holographic Will and Codicil of Jeanne Mance, Co-Founder of Montreal

Holographic Will and Codicil of Jeanne Mance, Co-Founder of Montreal

Jeanne Mance (1606−73) was the first lay nurse to practice in Montreal, founder and first bursar of the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, and an iconic figure in the history of Montreal. She first arrived in Canada in 1641, inspired by her religious conviction to serve the settlers and the indigenous people by establishing a hospital. She oversaw construction of the Hôtel-Dieu, and made several journeys back to France to secure resources for the project. She deserves to be recognized as the founder of the city, along with the French military officer Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612−76), first governor of Montreal. In her will, presented here, she bequeathed her heart to the people of Montreal, and asked the hospital nurses to take care of her body. Her remains are in the crypt of the chapel of the current Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. Established in 1645, the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal is the oldest hospital in Montreal. The will was drawn up by Bénigne Basset, (also known as Deslauriers, circa 1629−99), a notary, clerk of the court, and surveyor who arrived in Montreal with the Sulpicians in 1657.

Montreal Winter Carnival, February, 1884

Montreal Winter Carnival, February, 1884

In the late 19th century, the Montreal Winter Carnival changed the way winter was perceived in Quebec. It sought to attract visitors to the city in the heart of the winter, a season they had otherwise avoided. From 1883 to 1889, five such carnivals were organized. A smallpox epidemic caused a break in 1886 and the withdrawal of financing by the train companies caused a cancellation in 1888. Highly publicized, the carnival was attended by a large number of American tourists. Special trains were even chartered for the event. Discount train tickets were also offered. Many of the organizers of the carnival were recruited from among the members of various Montreal clubs, such as the Montreal Snow Shoe Club. Carnival activities included balls, masquerades, parades, shows, hockey, skiing, toboggan rides, curling, jousting, horseback riding, sleigh or snowshoe races, and speed skating. The Montreal winter carnivals gave rise to a wide variety of print productions: newspaper articles, greeting cards, postcards, programs, guides, and posters. This chromolithograph shows snowshoers in a torchlight procession down Mount Royal, the hill located in the center of the city. The Ice Palace was a fundamental part of the Montreal carnivals. Its height, architecture, and fantastic appearance amazed onlookers. Indeed, one of the highlights of the carnival was the attack on the palace by the clubs of snowshoers. As a leading symbol of the event, the Ice Palace is represented on almost all the printed productions about the carnival. In this picture, the palace is adorned with mica crystals to simulate the ice. The ice palaces of 1883, 1884, 1885, 1887, and probably 1889 were designed by leading architect Alexander Cowper Hutchinson and built at least in 1883 by his brother J.H. Hutchinson.

French Opera Theater, 1895−96 Season

French Opera Theater, 1895−96 Season

Founded in Montreal in 1893, the professional troupe of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français (French Opera Theater) moved to the Théâtre Français (French Theater), a renovated and electrified auditorium, one year later. The new venue was located at the corner of Sainte-Catherine Street and Saint-Dominique Street. In a context in which Quebec still had very few local professional artists and where theatrical and musical repertoire was primarily Anglophone, comedies, dramas, and operettas of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français delighted the French-speaking Montrealers. Consisting of singers and actors from France, the troupe featured the baritone Vandiric and such prima donnas such as Madame Essiani, Madame Bennati, and Madame Conti-Bessi. It included 25 instrumentalists and 24 choristers. Its repertoire consisted of lyrical and dramatic performances. The 1895−96 season proved to be both the most ambitious and the most difficult, ending prematurely with a scandal. On the evening of February 12, 1896, after a long delay, a singer came onstage to explain to the audience that large amounts of pay were due to the artists and that consequently the scheduled performance of The Barber of Seville would not take place. The public and the press were indignant at the plight of the artists and collected the necessary funds to enable them to return to France. However, some artists chose to remain in Montreal and were among the masters who gradually gave way to local professional artists at the dawn of the 20th century.

Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition under the Patronage of His Excellency, the Governor General of Canada Will Take Place in the City of Montreal

Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition under the Patronage of His Excellency, the Governor General of Canada Will Take Place in the City of Montreal

This impressive poster of the Grande Exposition agricole et industrielle de la Puissance (Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition), held in Montreal in 1884, is more than two meters high. Dominated by the picture of the Montreal Crystal Palace, this monumental wood engraving was typical of the "mammoth posters" that were used in both Canada and the United States. The poster evokes the exceptional scale of the 1884 exhibition, which attracted a large number of visitors. These exhibitions took place during one week in August or September of each year. The word "puissance" (power) in the original title referred to the Dominion of Canada, created by the Act of Confederation of 1867. Grouped by specialty on the exhibition field, which was located in the Mile-End District, the exhibitions presented products that included livestock, implements, new machinery, scientific curiosities, and much else. In line with the European tradition, awards and prizes were given. In addition to the program, balloon trips, fireworks, horse races, and merry-go-rounds were offered. As a symbol of the British colonial power, the Montreal Crystal Palace was an adapted, small-scale replica of the famous Crystal Palace built in 1851 for the Great Exhibition in London. Built in 1860 according to the plans of architect John Williams Hopkins, the structure was first located to the south of Victoria Street, between Sainte-Catherine Street and Cathcart Street. In 1879, it was relocated in the quadrilateral formed by Bleury Street, Saint-Urbain Street, Mont-Royal Avenue, and Saint-Joseph Boulevard. A fire destroyed the structure in 1896. Agricultural and industrial exhibitions in Quebec subsequently moved out of Montreal, to the cities of Trois-Rivières, Sherbrooke, and Saint-Hyacinthe.

Back View of the Church of Saint-Eustache and Dispersion of the Insurgents

Back View of the Church of Saint-Eustache and Dispersion of the Insurgents

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

A Fortified Pass. Colonel Wetherall Advancing to the Capture of Saint-Charles

A Fortified Pass. Colonel Wetherall Advancing to the Capture of Saint-Charles

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Passage of the Richelieu River by Night

Passage of the Richelieu River by Night

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Colonel Wetherall's Bivouac Shelter at Saint-Hilaire de Rouville

Colonel Wetherall's Bivouac Shelter at Saint-Hilaire de Rouville

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Front View of the Church of Saint-Eustache, Occupied by the Insurgents

Front View of the Church of Saint-Eustache, Occupied by the Insurgents

This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a large number of supporters. The rebels presented little challenge to the government military forces, which included a sizable loyal militia under the command of General John Colborne coming from Upper Canada. Patriote (rebel) forces faced British troops and militia on three occasions: at Saint-Denis, Saint-Charles, and Saint-Eustache. Martial law was declared and many rebels, including Papineau, fled to the United States. Hundreds were arrested, many were transported to Australia, and others were hanged at the Pied-du-Courant prison in Montreal. The original artist of the work from which Nathaniel Hartnell made this engraving, Lord Charles Beauclerk (1813−61), was an officer commanding British soldiers at Saint-Charles.

Lhasa, Drepung Monastery from the East

Lhasa, Drepung Monastery from the East

This view of the Drepung monastery (also seen as De-Pung, De-p’ung, Debang, Drabung, Dabung, Brebung, or Brasbung in other sources), viewed from the east, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to W.W. Rockhill in his Tibet (1890), Drepung was the most populous monastery in Tibet. In The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell states that it was “the most powerful and populous of all the monasteries in Tibet, founded and named after the Indian Tantrik monastery of 'The rice-heap' (Sri-Dhanya Kataka) in Kalinga and identified with Kalacakra doctrine. It is situated about three miles west of Lhasa, and contains nominally 7,000 monks.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa, Potala Palace from North-Northeast

Lhasa, Potala Palace from North-Northeast

This view of Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama), seen from the north-northeast, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. A note provided by the photographer, Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, states: “On the roof of Phodang Marpo [the Red Palace] are seen four shrines with (gilded) roofs in Chinese fashion. Half-way up the hill is a low, round, tower-like building, where those coming on horseback to the palace the western way up, dismount and leave their horses and mules. The entrance to the palace from that side is facing the east, in the tower which one sees on the right-hand corner (from the spectator) of the palace.” In “New light on Lhasa, the forbidden city” (1903), J. Deniker writes: “The whole collection of buildings contains nearly three thousand rooms and is larger than the Vatican, according to Agwang Dordje, who visited the papal residence on his last stay in Europe.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and O.M. Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Tibetan Women in Sunday Attire

Tibetan Women in Sunday Attire

This photograph showing a group of Tibetan women dressed in Sunday attire is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In Tibet (1890), W.W. Rockhill writes: “Married women part their hair in the middle and plait it like a rope on either side, bringing it together behind; the smaller the tresses, the more beautiful it is considered. Unmarried women wear another plait at the back of their heads. On the top of their tresses they wear strings of pearls (or beads) or coral, called dum-che, fastened to the hair by a silver hook. To the lower end of their tresses they attach strings, seven or eight inches long, of beads or coral, which hang on the shoulder; they are called do-shal.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Cutting Stone at the Sacred Phabongka Cemetery

Cutting Stone at the Sacred Phabongka Cemetery

This photograph shows a slab of stone where the corpses of the dead are cut to pieces at the sacred P'abon-k'a-ritod cemetery (also seen as Pabon-ka-ritod or Phabongka in other sources). It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photographer, G.Ts. Tsybikov, notes that the hermitage of P'abon-k'a-ritod is located about two English miles to the northwest of Sera. “The high priests, indeed, are buried or burned after death, but the bodies of the lower priests and those of the populace are abandoned to the birds of prey, after having been cut to pieces on a flat stone which lies halfway between Lhasa and the convent of Sera, near the chapel of Pa-ban-ka,” writes J. Deniker in his 1903 article “New light on Lhasa, the forbidden city.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa from the North

Lhasa from the North

This view of Lhasa from the north is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The large dark building behind a white one in the foreground is the Gah-ldan K'an-sar Palace (also seen as Gadan Kansar, Gadan-khangsar, Kaden Khansar, Kande Kansar, Kande Kanzer, and Kang-da Khangsar), which was the palace of the Tibetan kings up until 1751. Sarat Chandra Das writes in Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902): “In 1642 Kushi Khan conquered Tibet, and made over the sovereignty of the central portion of it to the fifth Dalai lama, Nagwang lozang-gyatso, and that of Tsang, or Ulterior Tibet, to the Grand Lama of Tashilhunpo, though he continued himself to be the de facto sovereign [. . .] The spiritual government remained, however, in the Dalai lama's hands and he conferred on Kushi Khan the title of Tandjin chos-gyri Gyalbo, 'the most Catholic king'. In 1645 the Dalai lama erected the palace of Potala, Kushi Kahn having his residence in the Gadan khangsar palace in Lhasa itself.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa Street during the Tsog Chod Festival

Lhasa Street during the Tsog Chod Festival

This photograph shows a view of a street in Lhasa during the Tsog Chod festival (also seen as Ts'og Ch'od in other sources and called Sung ch'o in Tibetan) celebrated on the 29th day of the second moon of the Tibetan year. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The strips flying in the wind in the upper left foreground are prayer flags, and crowds of people can be seen lining the street. In the 1903 article “New light on Lhasa, the forbidden city,” J. Deniker describes the city: “Lhasa is composed of a number of temples and convents, surrounded by gardens and joined together by streets filled with little shops and private dwellings. The town extends about two miles from west to east, and one mile from north to south.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Kichu River in its Lower Course

Kichu River in its Lower Course

This view of the lower course of the Kichu River is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The Kichu River is also called in other sources Kyii ch'u, KyiI, and Kyi-chu. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa, Potala Palace and Marpori (Red Mountain) from the West

Lhasa, Potala Palace and Marpori (Red Mountain) from the West

This view of Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama) and Marpori (red mountain), seen here from the west, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the 1901 article, “Lhasa,” T.H. Holdich writes: “Religious worship of the great gods has, the world over, been principally conducted in high places; mountain-tops have ever been their favorite abodes. [. . .] At an early date in the history of Buddhism, the cult of the 'All-Merciful God who looks down and sees the miseries of the world,' the Saviour, Avalokiteshwara became probably the most popular one, and Mount Potala, near the mouth of the river Indus, was held to be his abode. [. . .] In Tibet his worship was, in all likelihood, associated with some mountain form at the earliest days, for legends tell us that when he came to Tibet to bring civilization and salvation to the people, he took up his abode on a hill to the west of the present city of Lhasa, called the Red Hill (Marpo-Ri). Here, in the seventh century, the kings of Tibet built their modest palace, and Lhasa grew at its base.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Tashi-lhunpo Monastery from the South

Tashi-lhunpo Monastery from the South

This southern view of the Tashi-lhunpo monastery (also seen as Tashi-lhumpo in other sources) seen from afar is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photographer, Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, included a note: “On the extreme right end of the picture is the Jong or citadel of Shigatse. Inside the walls of the monastery stand in a line five tombs of the deceased Pan-ch'en Rin-po-ch'e [or Panchen rinpoche] with roofs in Chinese style. The dark (red de facto) low building standing in advance of the tombs between the second and the third is the grand congregation hall, Nagk'an [or Nag-pa Ta-Ts'an]. The huge Kiku Tamsa [a storehouse upon which giant tapestries are hung] described and figured by [Captain Samuel] Turner in his ‘Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Tashoo [Teshu] Lama in Tibet’ . . .  is on the right end of the monastery.” In The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell writes: “Tashi-lunpo (bkra-sis Lhun-po) or the 'Heap of Glory', [is] the headquarters of the Pan-ch'en Grand Lama, who to some extent shares the Lhasa grand lama the headship of the church. [. . .] The monastery forms quite a small town, and not lamas other than established church can stay there over-night.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and O.M. Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa, Potala Palace from the South

Lhasa, Potala Palace from the South

This view of Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama), seen here from the south, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. A note provided by the photographer, Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, states: “The large dark (de facto red) building on the top of the hill is the Phodang Marpo or the Red Palace [described by] Sarat Chandra Das [in Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902)]. The main southern entrance to the palace is in the white building in the foreground. To the left (on the picture) of the main entrance and in front of it is in an enclosure a dark (de facto yellow) pavilion over a ‘pei’ dating from 1794 and standing on a stone. To the right of the main entrance is a similar dark (yellow) pavilion over a stone tablet standing on a square stone pedestal, dating from 1721. The (monolith) column seen near the right pavilion bears an illegible inscription in Tibetan. Inside the walls, to the right (on the picture) of the main entrance is the mint.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and O.M. Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa, Drepung Monastery

Lhasa, Drepung Monastery

This general view of the Drepung monastery (also seen as De-Pung, De-p’ung, Debang, Drabung, Dabung, Brebung, or Brasbung in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. On the right of the photograph can be seen the mountain Gapal ri (also known as Gambo Utse). According to W.W. Rockhill in his Tibet (1890), Drepung was the most populous monastery in Tibet. In the The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell writes that it was the “most powerful and populous of all the monasteries in Tibet, founded and named after the Indian Tantrik monastery of 'The rice-heap' (Sri-Dhanya Kataka) in Kalinga and identified with Kalacakra doctrine. It is situated about three miles west of Lhasa, and contains nominally 7,000 monks.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Gadan Monastery

Gadan Monastery

This panoramic view of the Gah-Idan monastery (also seen as Gadan or Ganden in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The mountain on the right is the Brog ri and the mountain on the left is the Wan-kur-ri (also seen as Wangbur). The Tibetan religious philosopher and teacher of Buddhism, Tson-kha-pa (also seen as Tsongkhapa, Tson-k'apa, or Tsongk'apa in other sources) was the founder of the monastery, as well as of the now dominant lamaist sect Ge-lug-pa (also seen as Gelugpa) or “the virtuous order.” Tson-kha-pa is buried in the shrine to the left of the principal temple of Tsug-lak'an, to whose main entrance a double flight of steps lead. The house where Tson-kha-pa lived and died is to the right of Tsug-lak'an. In Tibet (1890), W.W. Rockhill writes: “The circumference of this monastery is about three-quarters of a mile. There are numerous well-built temples, with idols much the same as those at Sera. It is reported to be a very wealthy monastery, and is occupied by 3000 priests. The Tibetans say that the Kant-tan mountain was the residence of Tson-k'a-pa, a perfectly enlightened man. It is more-over said that he was Jeng-teng-ku Fo (Dipankara Buddha). Inside there is a hall of the classics with images of gods, pendant scrolls of silk, and gorgeous canopies; it is very grand, nearly equal to the Jok'ang or Ramoch'e [temples]. A K'an-po lama, who expounds and discourses on the yellow doctrine, resides here.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Tashi-lhunpo Monastery

Tashi-lhunpo Monastery

This photograph shows the Tashi-lhunpo monastery (also seen as Tashi-lhumpo in other sources). Specifically, the photograph shows a rear view of the (gilded) roof over the tomb of the fourth Pan-ch'en (or Panchen) Lama. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902), Sarat Chandra Das writes: “We entered the monastery of Tashilhunpo by the little western gate, in front of which stand two chortens—one very large with a gilt spire, the other smaller but neatly constructed. [. . .] The rays of the setting sun shone on the gilded spires of the houses and tombs in the monastery, and made a most enchanting picture.” Das also reports the words of Captain Samuel Turner, who had viewed the monastery in its infancy: “If the magnificence of the place was to be increased by any external cause, none would more superbly have adorned its numerous gilded canopies and turrets than the sun rising in full splendour directly opposite. It presented a view wonderfully beautiful and brilliant; the effect was little short of magic, and it made an impression which no time will ever efface from my mind.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Samye Monastery

Samye Monastery

This distant view of the Samye monastery (also seen as Sam-ye or Sam-yai in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the center, inside the walls furnished with small chortens (or ch'ortens), is the Tsug-la-k'an (also seen as Tsug-lha-khang), or golden-top house, the principal temple of the monastery. In his article “Journey to Lhasa,” G.Ts. Tsybikov writes: “The Sam-yai monastery is on the left bank of the Brahmaputra, 67 miles south-east of Lhasa. It is the oldest in Tibet, having been founded in the ninth century. Its five-storied sume (temple), of which the style is both Tibetan and Indian, is its chief attraction.” In The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell writes: “Sam-yas . . . [was] the first monastery founded in Tibet . . . Its full title is 'Sam-yas Mi'gyur Lhun-gyis grub-pai tsug-lug K'han' or 'The academy for obtaining the heap of unchanging meditation'. [. . .] Part of the original building yet remains. The monastery, which contains a large temple, four large colleges, and several other buildings, is enclosed by a lofty circular wall about a mile and a half in circumference, with gates facing the cardinal points, and along the top of the wall are many votive brick chaityas, of which the explorer, Nain Singh, counted 1,030, and they seemed to be covered with inscriptions in ancient Indian characters.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Yamdo tso or Lake Palti

Yamdo tso or Lake Palti

This view of the Yamdo tso (or Lake Palti), seen from K'ambe la Pass (also seen as Khamba la Pass in other sources), is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The snow peak seen in the distance is the Nui-jin-kang Jar'oz (also seen as Nui-jin kang-zang) or Hao-kang-sang (also seen as Kao-kang-sang). In Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902), Sarat Chandra Das recounts the legend of the lake: “When in the eighteenth century, the Jungars invaded Tibet; their wrath was especially turned against the lamaseries and monks of the Nyingma sect. There then lived in Palti djong [the town of Palti] a learned and saintly lama, called Palti Shabdung, well versed in all the sacred literature, and proficient in magic arts. Hearing that the invaders had crossed the Nabso la and were marching on Palti, he, by his art, propitiated the deities of the lake who caused the waters of the lake to appear to the Jungar troops like a plain of verdure, so that they marched into the lake and were drowned, to the number of several thousands. Another corps which had advanced by the Khamba la, not finding the troops which had gone by the Nabso la, retraced their steps, and so the town of Palti was saved.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa, Potala Palace from West-Northwest

Lhasa, Potala Palace from West-Northwest

This photograph shows a view of Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama) in Lhasa, seen from the west-northwest. The photograph was taken on the route to Drepung monastery (also seen as De-Pung, De-p’ung, Debang, Drabung, Dabung, Brebung, or Brasbung in other sources). It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photographer, Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, notes: “the birds seen on the ground are but cocks, brought thither from all Lhasa. The cocks are [illegible] in great numbers in the household, but, as in the precincts of the ritualistic outer circumambulation road no creature can be put to death, the cocks are carried to that place where they are left to the mercy of passers-by and those making the circumambulations; they feed the birds by throwing them corn.” Bringing chickens to this place may also perform the “srog-slu” rite, or life-saving charity, believed to ensure the life of the donor. The rite is described by Sarat Chandra Das in Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902): “To deceive life (srog-slu), by saving from death animals about to be killed. . . . is also known as 'life-saving charity'. The saving of the lives of men, beasts, and particularly fishes, is calculated to insure life. When Tsing-ta proposed this to me, I at once agreed to save five hundred fish. The old doctor said he would go to the fishermen's village, some three miles away, buy the fish, and set them free for me, if I would lend him a pony. He came back in the evening, and reported that he had successfully accomplished this most important mission, by which much merit would come to me.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and O.M. Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Samye Monastery

Samye Monastery

This photograph shows a close view of the Samye monastery (also seen as Sam-ye or Sam-yai in other sources), and particularly, the Tsug-la-k'an (also seen as Tsug-lha-khang), or golden-top house, the principal temple of the monastery. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Gyantse Jong (Gyangze), Chorten Goman

Gyantse Jong (Gyangze), Chorten Goman

This view of the Chorten Goman in the town of Gyantse (also seen as Gyangze, Gangtse, or Gyangtse in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In The Land of Lamas (1891), W.W. Rockhill writes that the word “chorten” means “offering holder.” Rockhill adds: “Great numbers are built in the vicinity of lamaseries, and serve to point out the roads leading to them. They are also something like the stations in the Catholic 'Path to the Cross', as pilgrims, when journeying to a shrine, perform prostrations before each churten [chorten] met on the way.” In Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902), Sarat Chandra Das describes the chorten seen in this photograph: “The chorten is a splendid edifice of an unique style of architecture. Hitherto I had been under the impression that chorten were nothing more than tombs intended solely to contain the remains of departed saints, but now my views became entirely changed. This chorten is a lofty temple nine stores high.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Obo

Obo

This view of an obo is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to W.W. Rockhill in The Land of Lamas (1891): “Obo is a Mongolized Tibetan word, do bong, 'pile of stones' or do bum, 'ten myriad stones'. They are found all over Mongolia and Tibet. In many countries shepherds put up small ones as guides to take their flocks to water, or to go to camp.” The photographer, Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, noted that this obo measured some six meters in height, and was located on the road from Lhasa to Depung monastery (also seen as De-Pung, De-p’ung, Debang, Drabung, Dabung, Brebung, or Brasbung in other sources), and was nearer to Depung than to Lhasa. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and O.M. Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa, Norbu linga Palace, Summer Residence of Dalai Lamas

Lhasa, Norbu linga Palace, Summer Residence of Dalai Lamas

This photograph shows the main entrance to the park of the Norbu Linga palace (the summer residence of the Dalai Lama) in Lhasa, viewed from the east. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Norbu Linga is also seen as Nurbu Linga, Norbu Lingka, Norbulingka, Nerbuling K'ang, and Nor-bu Ling in other sources. In Tibet (1890), W.W. Rockhill writes: “S.W. of Potala is the Nerbuling k'ang on the N. side of the Kyi ch'u. In it is a large stone tank in which the water of the river flows. It is surrounded by dense foliage and has many paths. It has a one-storied house, beautifully ornamented, with flowers, etc. Here the Tale [Dalai] lama passes some twenty days in the warm season and enjoys the bathing.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.

Lhasa, Bar Chorten, the Western Gate or Pargo Kaling Gateway

Lhasa, Bar Chorten, the Western Gate or Pargo Kaling Gateway

This photograph shows the Bar Chorten, or Western Gate, located between the Ch'agpori and Marpori mountains. The photograph was taken on the way from Lhasa. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Bar Chorten is also seen in other sources as Barkokani, Bakokani, and the Gateway of Pargo-Kaling. In The Land of Lamas (1891), W.W. Rockhill writes that the word “chorten” means “offering holder.” Rockhill adds: “Great numbers are built in the vicinity of lamaseries, and serve to point out the roads leading to them. They are also something like the stations in the Catholic 'Path to the Cross', as pilgrims, when journeying to a shrine, perform prostrations before each churten [chorten] met on the way.” In Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902), Sarat Chandra Das describes the Bar Chorten seen in this photograph: “The larger two-storied house to the right is a private one. From the top of the chorten, wires are stretched to the top of two smaller chortens standing on both sides of the passage; the wires are furnished with small bells. One of the smaller chortens is seen to the left through the branches of a tree.” The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated the notes from Russian into English in April 1904.