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- This photograph of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. Boer Voortrekkers (pioneers) founded the city of Pietermaritzburg (often abbreviated as Maritzburg) in 1838, following their victory over the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River. It was named after Piet Retief and Gerrit Maritz, both of whom were killed in the conflict between the white settlers and the Zulus.
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