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- This photograph of an official in India is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. India was under direct British rule from 1858, when the Government of India Act liquidated the British East India Company and transferred its functions to the British Crown, until 1947, when India and Pakistan achieved their independence. The British employed only about 1,200 British civil servants in India, and relied upon a large body of local officials to administer the vast country.
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